How Cannabinoids Work: Half II – Paths By the Physique
Although medical cannabis research is increasing on a daily basis, it is difficult for patients and their healthcare professionals to understand the interplay of many variables to determine dosages, the type of cannabis, and especially the delivery system.
Even if you know exactly how much of an ingredient such as THC you receive, the way it absorbs into your body influences its effectiveness – just as paracetamol is more bioavailable when it is injected directly (96 percent) into the bloodstream and not orally (67 percent).
Cannabinoids can be smoked, vaporized, taken orally and applied topically. Each of these delivery methods results in a different bioavailability or the fraction of a drug being absorbed.
Where smoke is, is fire … and cannabinoids
Smoking is a combustion process in which a temperature of 500 to 600 degrees Celsius or 932 to 1,112 degrees Fahrenheit converts all inactive ingredients into active form and dissolves in a vapor that also contains carbon monoxide and tar. When dried and oil cannabis products are heated, a chemical reaction called decarboxylation begins, which increases the activity of the cannabinoids and delivers them rapidly to the blood vessels via the pulmonary capillaries or the small blood in the lungs. Each move results in the same mix of content.
Vaporizing: Setting the temperature for cannabinoids and terpenes
Vaporizing does not include combustion. The process takes place at temperatures between 104 and 225 degrees Celsius, or 219 and 437 degrees Fahrenheit. At this time, various combinations of cannabinoids, flavonoids and terpenoids are extracted. In the case of temperature programmable evaporators, each individual temperature setting vaporizes a unique set of active molecules, allowing for better control of the delivered content. For example, if you set the temperature to 150 to 160 degrees Celsius, or 302 to 320 degrees Fahrenheit, a mixture of alpha pinene, beta pinene, and delta 9 THC will be generated while the temperature is 161 to 170 degrees Celsius, or 322 to 338 degrees Fahrenheit, volatilizes beta limonene and CBD – allows a consumer, for example, to inhale three different trains with three different sets of content.
Sublingual: Fast Delivery
Sublingual absorption, as the name implies, refers to delivery under the tongue. The method has a completely different mode of action and works fast compared to food. Liquid in the form of drops or solids such as slips is well absorbed and rapidly released through the mucosal linings under the tongue. This mode of action leads to better bioavailability as the digestive system is bypassed.
In addition, a small portion of the THC can interact directly with the CB1 receptors in the salivary glands, which are part of the endocannabinoid system in our body. Endocannabinoid system components such as the CB1 and CB2 receptors, as well as the messengers 2-arachidonoylglycerol and anandamide, are involved in a number of basic functions that the biomolecular scientist Vincenzo Di Marzo described two decades ago as "relaxing, eating, sleeping, forgetting and protecting. "
The presence of CB1 receptors in salivary glands of mammals; the presence of endocannabinoids or the internal molecules in our body that bind CB1 and CB2 receptors, 2-arachidonoylglycerol and anandamide in human saliva; and the decrease in salivary secretion as a side effect of cannabis use suggests that these modes of administration allow a direct and very rapid interaction between cannabinoids and the CB1 receptor.
Edible: eat, drink and be merry
Food is generally slower due to the digestive process. Foods pass through the digestive system, where drugs such as THC are chemically further modified to a more psychoactive form by a series of enzymes called the cytochrome P450 superfamily, which are called 11-hydroxy-THC. However, this process can be inhibited by the presence of flavones such as apigonin and luteonin, which are also found in cannabis. The genotype of the consumer also has a major impact on this process.
Topicals : Yes, there is the rub
Topical ointments infused with cannabis are absorbed by the skin . The skin receptors can receive signals from topical ointments as well as signals from the body. The effect is localized and limited to the treatment of anti-inflammatory drugs, analgesics and itching with almost no possibility for psychotropic side effects. It is effective as pure CBD, a blend of a few cannabinoids, and as whole plant or flower extract.
With the extension of scientific and medical knowledge and the development of standards for extraction and detection, further products with precise labels and reproducible properties are being developed. This gives doctors and consumers more tools to tailor the treatment to each person, taking into account their genetic makeup and state of health.