The hashish suffocation of Ghayat Al-Hakim and the Picatrix
CANNABIS CULTURE – "… Indian cannabis has so many functions and the Indians use it mainly in their incense mixture used in the temples, and some prefer it more than the dregs of the wine, and Yanbushath said that too called the Chinese seed. "
-Ghayat AlHakim * [translation from (Hashem Atallah, 2002) edition]
The Ghayat Al-Hakim was a medieval Arabic grimoire inspired by one of the basic documents of the Western magical tradition, the Picatrix. Picatrix, a medieval treatise on astral magic, seems to be an ideal time to discuss this drugged grimoire.
One way for the occult cannabis use from the Middle East to Europe was via the Ghayat Al-Hakim, "The Aim of the Wise Men", which was an Arabian Grimoire that was supposed to be between the 10th and 10th 11th century was written. During the reign of King Alfonso in the 13th century, it was first translated into Spanish and then into Latin. From then on it became known in Europe under the title Picatrix and served as one of the founding documents of Western magical tradition. The Picatrix was too controversial to ever have appeared in the print shop before the 20th century, and was secretly passed around in coveted handwritten manuscripts. Given this mode of transmission, it is not surprising that there are a number of differences between the Arabic Ghāyat al-hakīm and surviving European versions of the Picatrix, and it seems that some things have been lost in copying and some have been added by each additional transcriber However, there is enough in common to identify their relationship. These variations continued as the Grimoire was transcribed by hand for each new edition.
The Ghayat Al-Hakim
In addition to the Latin and Arabic versions of The Picatrix, there were also medieval Hebrew translations that showed the Jewish Kabbalists' interest in Grimoire. "There are two Hebrew versions of the main composition about magic, Ghayat al-Hakim or Picatrix." (Idel, 1992). The most important of the two was translated from Arabic and is known as Takhlit he-Hakham. Later versions were translated from the Latin or Spanish of the Grimoire. "Three Hebrew translations of Picatrix are preserved in Italian manuscripts from the late fifteenth and early sixteenth centuries" (Idel, 1992).
The Picatrix consists of 4 books with detailed instructions in the fields of astrology, talismanic magic, and astral contact. The author of the Picatrix claimed to have been composed of the works of over two hundred "old wise men". Influences from the ancient texts of Egypt, India, Persia, Assyria, Chaldea, Greece and other countries have been found and exotic ingredients from China, Africa, India and other countries have been found, indicating the culture of the metropolises from which they originated. As noted in his essay by David Pingree, some of Ghāyat al-hakīm's sources are "Arabic texts on Hermetism, Sabianism, Ismailism, astrology, alchemy, and magic that appeared in the Middle East in the 9th and 10th centuries AD are "(Pingree, 1980). It is an obviously important text of Islamic magic, giving modern readers an idea of some of the occult beliefs and practices of esoteric Islamic groups, such as the Ismailis and the Sufis, that we have already discussed for their use of hashish. It should also be noted in the translation of the 13th-century text in Spain that "hashish" was also consumed openly in southern Spain until it was recaptured by Isabella the Catholic and the Roman Catholic Church was once again firmly under control would have". (Nahas, 1985).
Illustration from a medieval copy of Picatrix.
The original authorship of Ghayat Al-Hakim and thus the Picatrix has long been controversial. The prologue to the Latin manuscript refers to "the wise philosopher, the noble and honored Picatrix," and it is commonly believed that he named the book after himself. A number of medieval sources claimed the name & # 39; Picatrix & # 39; was a bad translation of Hippocrates, though this association was long since rejected, since Hippocrates on the pages of the Picatrix as " Ypocras ". Others claim that the Arabic Grimoire was written by Maslama ibn Ahmad al-Majriti (an Andalusian mathematician), an association originally said to have been made by the 14th-century alchemist al-Jildaki. This authorship has also been called into question.
Modern science has since called the work Abu l-Qāsim Maslama b. Dated back to the 10th century. Qāsim al-Qurṭubī (abbreviated as Mas Maslama,), who has also written a text on alchemy, the Rutbat al-Ḥakīm (Rank of the Wise) and the affirmation of this identity has recently come through the discovery of two medieval Arabic manuscripts that were missing from earlier researchers and refer to Abu l-Qāsim Maslama b. Qāsim al-Qurṭubī as author. Maslama was described by Ibn al-Faradi as "a man of charm and talismans", and other sources have described him as "magician and magician" and as "Cordoban alchemist". The identity of Maslama can also be the source of the name "Picatrix" through "a kind of cross-language pun" (Atrell, 2016). The Arabic word & # 39; ms-l & # 39; referring to the name Maslama means & # 39; sting & # 39 ;, and therefore it was rendered by the Spanish translator as Picatrix, a variant of the Latin word picator, which means "someone who stings or stings" (Thomann) 1990).
The spells and recipes of this medieval spellbook, which made no real distinction between white and black magic, blurred the boundaries between what was later to be divided into the high and low magical traditions. In addition to the use of substances such as mandrake, hellebore, opium, cannabis, thorn apple and other psychoactive substances can be found the ritual use of human remains, the blood of humans and animals, of sperm, excrement and other fouling ingredients. Certain prescriptions contain some extremely toxic substances, and it has been suggested that this was a means used by the author of the Picatrix to separate the ways of less valuable aspirants. "Such tricks would certainly have increased the awareness of using magical spellbooks like the Picatrix" (Attrell, 2016).
Both the Arabic and the Latin versions deal with talismanic astro magic induced by aromatic fumigants. Some are represented by a & # 39; hollow cross & # 39; inhaled with precise instructions and different ingredients. Translations of Arabic texts provide a context of supernatural plants and shamanic practices This indicates that psychoactive fumes continue to act as a catalyst for trance or ecstatic states. (Dannaway, 2009)
Recipes for elixirs, ointments, pills and frankincense abound in the Picatrix. Some are used to treat illness, others to cause harm, and others to see visions and get in touch with the astral. Although cannabis, opium and other substances appear on the pages of the Picatrix, the identification of these substances in this medieval spellbook has "so far received little attention from the scholars of medieval magic" (Attrell, 2016).
The most active and dangerous substances in the Picatrix come from the Solanaceous family of plants, such as Mandragora officinarum and Hyoscyamus niger, which are notorious for their use in European witchcraft. Mandrake and Henbane, such as Datura Stramonium (Jimsonweed, Devil's) Trumpet or Dornapfel, or Atropa Belladonna (Deadly Nightshade) are known to evoke bizarre delirium, nightmarish hallucinations, out-of-body experiences, and "flights." (Attrell, 2016)
Opium is easier to use in the Picatrix than cannabis and contains medical information ("breastmilk with opium brings fever and sleeplessness to sleep") as well as magical ones. A rather cruel magical recipe foresees that a recently removed human head, which is filled into a large jar of 8 ounces of opium, is sealed with equal portions of human blood and sesame oil and slowly cooked! The author of the Picatrix wrote: "There were many wonders in this oil, and the first is that you can see what you want to see." Another recipe asks the wizard: "Take a human penis and chop it in." Stir in pieces and opium powder! "[As translated in (Warnock & Greer, 2015)]. Other recipes call for mixing opium with other psychoactive substances such as chicken seed, nutmeg, calamus and vermouth, as well as milder psychoactive ingredients, some to aid smoking, such as frankincense, myrrh and saffron, which help create a more pleasant smelling smoke, and that was probably necessary considering the use of blood and other items such as "the head of a black cat."
Dan Attrell, one of the two translators for the latest English edition of Picatrix, has described the role of drugs in the medieval spell book:
As the initiator of the shamanic rites of a preformed culture, the sage who spent months planning his work, collecting animal, mineral and botanical ingredients and earning the right astrological hours for his work, undoubtedly supports certain cases – by attaining, what he wanted with the help of psychoactive substances. The substances needed for certain spells in the Picatrix are often needed in such high quantities that a strong mind-altering experience would have been inevitable for the practitioner who suffers from it. In these dreamy (or delirious) states, the planetary spirits penetrated into the mind of the adept, spanning the realm of shared experience and the abstract realm of forms hidden in the subconscious. (Attrell & Porreca, 2018)
The main method of using these substances was "asphyxiation", i. H. By burning frankincense and other means of producing smoke. As the author of the Picatrix wrote about this method: "According to the Hindus, great miracles and great effects suffocate, which they call Calcitarat, and with them the effects of the seven planets are worked on. These suffixations should be used according to the nature of the planet to which the petition corresponds. [As translated in (Warnock & Greer, 2015)] The author quotes Hermes Trismegistus elsewhere: "Rituals performed with suffocations and prayers are more effective than rituals in which suffocations are missing or lacking the will is shared" (Attrell & Porreca, 2018)
This ritual fumigation required that the magician often stand over the burning vapors of the preparation and inhale the smoke in a closed room. From some of the ingredients and amounts of these substances, one can be sure that ritual poisonings have been received. "The purpose of most of the smothering magic in the Picatrix is to contact the planetary spirits. When the Adept wanted to talk to a planet, he dressed in robes dyed with the colors of his chosen planet, chose his hours, prayed, and became saturated with his ingredients "(Attrell, 2016). The ingredients varied depending on the applied planetary aid, and not all ingredients or prescriptions consisted of psychoactive substances.
In reference to heavenly deities, the use of opium was used in a Sun invocation, while the use of cannabis occurs in two magical operations that calmed the moon. Considering what we have seen about the influence of the Zoroastrian tradition on the Islamic world, and the evidence of the survival of the Haoma cult into Syria in the 19th century, one could speculate that this connection between cannabis and the moon a remnant of the union of heavenly deities with Soma / Haoma plays a role. In Picatrix Book 4, chapter 2, which deals with moon magic, we find two recipes that are about cannabis. However, these two recipes are only included in the Latin and Spanish versions of The Picatrix and can not be found in the surviving Arabic version of the Ghayat AlHakim:
How to talk to the ghosts of the moon and, firstly, when she's in the ram. If you want to put on the virtue and power of the moon, when he's in Aries, at the hour he's fully risen, because that's better and more useful for your petition. Put on a crown at this hour and go to a green and watery place near the banks of a flowing river or running water. Take a cock with a split comb, which you will behead with the bone of another cock, since you must not touch this cock in any way with iron. Turn your face towards the moon, for that is a very great mystery among them [Chaldeans, and Egyptians]. Imagine two iron thuribles full of burning coals, in which you should pour incense grains one after the other so that the smoke rises to the moon. Then stand upright between the censers and say, "You moon, radiant, honored, lovely, who shatters the shadows with your light, you rise in your rising and fill every horizon with your light and your beauty. I come to you humbly and seek wealth, for which I humbly ask you. "Enter your petition here. Then make ten steps forward, always look at the moon and repeat the words above. Take one of the Thuribles, into which you should pour four ounces of Storax.
Then burn your victim and draw the following pieces on a leaf of cannabis * with the victim's ashes and a small amount of crocus. Then burn the leaf. As soon as the smoke rises, you will see the figure of a handsome man dressed in the finest clothes between the Thuribles and to whom you should petition, and he will be filled with it. If you would like to request something from him, repeat the above work, and the above form will appear and answer your questions. "[As translated in (Warnock & Greer, 2015).]
While the above recipe gives no real indication of a quantity of cannabis that could be derived for psychoactive effects, and "it must be admitted that this may be a hemp leaf (like hemp paper), but it is not unique" ( Attrell, 2016). In other places, however, abundant amounts of cannabis resin can be found. Dan Attrell commented, "The blood of a deer, an animal that has been ruled by the moon since antiquity, is ground together in a marble mortar with over one pound of hashish (which today could be estimated at around $ 5,000 on the roads). The user of this particular asphyxiation is instructed to fill the mixture in a censer, light it, then stand above it and bring prayers and sacrifices to the moon, and only then would the "Lune servus" appear. (Attrell, 2016). As The Picatrix records itself:
If the moon is in the fish and you want to access their strength and power, take 1 ⅕ lbs. of cannabis resin and the same amount of sycamore resin and mix together. Extract these resins while the Sun is in Virgo and Mercury is shining and moving forward. Grind them in a marble mortar. When done, add 4 ounces. Mastic, 2 oz. respectively amber and camphor, 1 oz. of alkali and 10 oz. from sarcocolla. Mix everything very well, to which you should add ½ pound of the blood of a deer that was beheaded with a bronze knife. When everything is mixed, place it in a glass container. Go to a running source and position the glass jar on its outer lip. Next, take a censer and place it on a stone in the middle of the spring water, so that the censer is completely surrounded by water. Then light a fire in it. Once it is lit, open the opening of the glass container and gradually empty the container into the fire until the whole is poured into the fire. Next, make your sacrifice. The servant of the moon will appear to you, to whom you should express your request. It is led to its effect. [As translated in (Attrell and Porreca, 2018)].
Regarding the use of blood and narcotics in this invocation recipe and throughout the Picatrix, please refer to the comments of Franz Hartmann, the German occultist and founding member of the Ordo Templi Orientis:
Various means have been used to nullify the discriminating willpower and make the imagination unusually passive, and all such practices are detrimental to the extent that they are fleeting. The ancient pythoness tried to increase its already abnormal susceptibility by inhaling harmful fumes … others use opium, Indian hemp, and other narcotics that not only annihilate their will and empty their minds, but also excite and stimulate the brain pathological fantasies and illusions.
… The fumigations that formerly served to render reason inactive and to make the products of a passive imagination appear in an objective state were generally narcotic substances. Blood was only used to provide elementals and elementals with substances that could make their bodies denser and more visible. (Hartmann, 1893).
The idea that sacrificial smoke was a kind of food for demons goes way back. "Zosimos believes that the Daimon, who live in the upper regions of the world, are nourished by the smoke of the sacrifice and are therefore dependent on the offerings of human worshipers. There is an implication that the airy bodies of these demons are actually replenished by the victims' fumes, a question that seems to have been discussed in theurgical circles "(Fraser, 2004). Zosimos has also mentioned the use of cannabis in magic infusions.
It should be noted that the choice of a place where the incense "censer, … [is] on a stone in the middle of the spring water, so that the censer is completely surrounded by water", would have offered an interesting reflection of light occasions Probably would have played well with the fire and thick smoke of incense infused with hashish and other ingredients. Leaving aside all supernatural explanations and ignoring the effects of fire on water and smoke, the chemical action of the smoke alone from these substances would increase the potential for Pareidolia, which refers to a psychological phenomenon in which the mind reacts to a stimulus by perceiving a familiar pattern in which none exists, ie, like seeing pictures in smoke, the same smoke that was the source of inspiration. This is an old, proven and proven technique of magic.
Hartmann not only referred to the role of smoke in the ability of entities to take shape in such incantations, but also identified the continued use of narcotics in Europe for the same purposes. As we shall know in the Renaissance, this shamanic magic technique was very common, and references similar to those of the Picatrix appeared in a series of grimoires, but some discussions help to better understand the context of the Picatrix representation. ,
There is no doubt that the procedures of ritual magic can cause hallucinations. The wizard prepares for abstinence and lack of sleep or through drinking, drugs and sex. He inhales fumes that can affect his brain and senses. He performs mysterious rites that tug at the deepest, most emotional and unreasonable levels of his mind. He focuses on a mental image of the being he hopes to see. It is not unlikely that he actually sees it at the height of the ceremony. (Cavendish, 1967)
This view on magical incense was also shared by 19th century researchers. As Joseph Ennemoser in the History of Magic (1844) (published in English as History of Magic) (1854) stated:
The … vapors by which the ancient priests became ecstatic or used on the oracles can be counted as narcotics …
… Further preparations – through incense … – have been known and delivered from the most distant times in Asia, Egypt and Greece; and it seems that from then on they were transferred to Europe, partly through early migration, partly through the Crusades …
… the methods of creating the magical states; Will and artificial are here of ancient date and universal knowledge. Of narcotics, opium, hemp and deadly nightshade we find the most accurate reports, and they are still used by modern Persians, Muslims and Arabs. The theurgy even included the art of communicating with spirits and subjugating them. Thus, the nature of the vision often shows that they are produced by artificial means … (Ennemoser, 1844/1854).
In Fiends, Ghosts and Sprites, including a Report on the Origins and Nature of Belief in the Supernatural (1854), John N. Radcliffe reiterated these views:
… the subsequent poisoning by the inhalation of strong stun vapors – a poisoning which, as with the example of hashish, especially tends to the development of hallucinations – will adequately explain the smoke illusion of chafing – harness representing every figure that the Wants to see reason.
… The effect of the stunning vapor alone was enough to provoke hallucinations ….
… The use of intoxicating and numbing drugs undoubtedly also contributed to the development of those ideas of strange and wonderful transformations and formal anomalies teeming with the legends and romances of the Oriental and European nations. … (Radcliffe, 1864)
The Picatrix and Western Magical Tradition
Based on not unfounded views of his "diabolical" nature of being brought into contact with the Picatrix in the Middle Ages, this would have led to allegations of witchcraft and heresy and probably to a process of inquisition. The Picatrix was one of the most disgusting works of Nigromancia or divination by daimonic incantation, in the middle of the fifteenth century in his works The Puch of all Verpoten Art, The Puch of all Verpoten Art, The Puch of all Verpoten Art, The Puch of all Verpoten Art , The Puch Of All Forbidding Art, The Puch, & # 39; The Book Of All Forbidden Arts, Of Superstition And Sorcery & # 39; (which was also mentioned as the oldest known description of the flying witches' albums). References to the Picatrix can also be found in the Steganographies & # 39; Secret Writings & # 39 ;, a work on & # 39; angelic magic & # 39; (1500) and the later Antipalus Maleficiorum & # 39; the enemy of witchcraft & # 39; (1508) written by Johannes Trithemius (1462-1516), a German Benedictine abbot and occultist, whose students included the famous occult figures Agrippa and Paracelsus. Despite this fiendish reputation, the influence of this book on European and occult traditions should not be underestimated.
Despite this warning, the Picatrix was circulated in Europe from the 13th century and passed through many hands. Interestingly, we may be able to determine its influence on some very important occult figures, and the use of the psychoactive plants involved appears to have been part of this transmission. In particular, alchemist, Philip Aureolus Theophrastus Bombastus of Hohenheim (1493-1541) (Paracelsus) and the theologian and occultist Heinrich Cornelius Agrippa (1486-1535) (Agrippa) were both Pupils of John Trithemius (1462-1516) who referred to the Picatrix in two works and indicated their possible availability during this period, and both can be associated with the use of some of the potent potent psychoactive ingredients mentioned in Picatrix, for magical purposes as I showed in Liber 420. We can be sure that Trithemius has circulated handwritten copies of his manuscripts among his most gifted disciples and that the reference to the Picatrix in reference to the invocation of angels in Book 2 of his Steganographia, & # 39; Secret Writings & # 39 ;, a work on angelic magic & # 39; (1499, published 1606), aroused the interest of his students as well as the warnings in the later Antipalus Maleficiorum, "The Enemy of Witchcraft", (1508), but they were not published until 1605 and threatened with a copy of the Manuscript to be caught.
"One of the most significant contributions of recent Renaissance scholarship was the recognition of the significant impact of magic on Renaissance thinking …. The literary traces of Picatrix are evident in the writings of several central thinkers such as Giordano Bruno and Tommaso Campanella. "(Idel, 1992).
The Picatrix and the Necronimicon
It has also been roughly assumed that the Picatrix plays a role in the pulp-fiction horror author H.P. could have played. Lovecraft's Conception of the Necronimicon "The Book of the Dead Names":
In his "Cthulhu Mythos", H.P. Lovecraft created the Necronimicon, a fictional book about the occult that appeared in several of his stories. Lovecraft introduced Abdul Alhazred, the "crazy Arab", in his 1921 story "The Nameless City" and "The Necronimicon" in his 1922 story "The Dog". He married them in his classic 1926 Cthulhu Call Abdul Alhazred, an opium and hashish consumer, had written Al Azif as the book is said to be in Arabic. The fictional treatise of the author of 1927, "The History and Chronology of the Necronimicon," led many readers to believe the band was real. (Lamberson, 2001).
In addition to Lovercraft's myth of the Necronimicon and its authenticity, a book was published in 1977 claiming to be the authentic version of & # 39; The Necronimicon & # 39; to be by an anonymous character called & # 39; Simon & # 39; is known. written in a manner similar in some ways to the Picatrix and other grimoires and ancient books of magic. This styling prompted occultist Owen Davies to refer to it as "well constructed dizziness" (Davies, 2010).
Abdul Alhazred, the crazy Arab, smokes cannabis
As the authors have noted in one of The Picatrix's modern translations, allegations of connections between the Necronimicon and Picatrix gain a degree of credibility through the striking parallels between the two works. Like the Necronimicon, Picatrix was first written in Arabic, translated into Latin in the thirteenth century, and then superstitious for centuries among European occultists. Both books contain detailed instructions for rituals designed to retrieve inhumane forces from today's space, and contain malevolent magical effects of tremendous power. "(Greer & Warnock, 2010). Solche Ähnlichkeiten sind immer vorhanden, wie Simons Necronimicon aufzeichnet: „Ich habe von den Kräften der astralen Götter erfahren und wie ich sie in Zeiten der Not um Hilfe bitten kann. Ich erfuhr auch von den schrecklichen Wesen, die jenseits der Astralgeister wohnen, die den Eingang zum Tempel der Verlorenen bewachen, von den Alten der Tage, den Alten der Alten, deren Namen ich hier nicht schreiben kann. “- Necronimicon (Simon, 1977).
Es gibt auch eine tiefgreifende Ähnlichkeit im Stil der Siegel in beiden Werken, und vor allem in Bezug auf diesen Band, den Gebrauch bestimmter Drogen in der Geschichte. Die Inhaltsstoffe des Weihrauchs von Mad Arabs sind als "Olibanum, Storax, Dictamus, Opium und Haschisch" aufgeführt, und alle außer Dictamus sind auf den Seiten der Picatrix zu finden (und möglicherweise auch darunter ein anderer Name).
Simons Necrominicon beschreibt die Entdeckung von durch den verrückten Araber eines „seltsamen Grases“, woraus man nur schließen kann, dass ein Hinweis auf Cannabis verschleiert ist:
In meinen einsamen Zeremonien in den Bergen, die ich mit Feuer und Schwert, mit Wasser und Dolch und mit Hilfe eines seltsamen Grases, das in bestimmten Teilen von MASSHU wild wächst und mit dem ich unabsichtlich mein Feuer vor dem Rock, jenes Gras, das dem Verstand große Kraft gibt, enorme Entfernungen in den Himmel und in die Höllen zurückzulegen, erhielt ich die Formeln für die folgenden Amulette und Talismane, die dem Priester einen sicheren Durchgang zwischen den Sphären ermöglichen, in denen er reisen kann auf der Suche nach der Weisheit. – Necronimicon, (Simon, 1977).
Interessanterweise scheint es, wie wir anhand von Cannabis gesehen haben, das bei der Anrufung des Mondes verwendet wurde, einen ähnlichen Zusammenhang zwischen diesem Gras und dem Mond in Simons Necronimicon zu geben.
Nun gibt es hier zwei Beschwörungsformeln für die Alten, die den Zauberern der Nacht bekannt sind, die Bilder machen und sie durch den Mond und andere Dinge verbrennen. Und sie verbrennen sie durch den Mond und durch andere Dinge. Und sie verbrennen ungesetzliche Gräser und Kräuter und erwecken ungeheure Übel, und es heißt, dass ihre Worte niemals niedergeschrieben werden. Aber es gibt … – Necronimicon, (Simon, 1977).
Die Liste der "Alten" in der folgenden Hymne enthält eine Reihe mesopotamischer Gottheiten und scheint eine besondere Hommage an Ishtar zu sein, dessen Kult tatsächlich Cannabis verwendete. Wie die Assyriologin Erica Reiner feststellte, wird „das Kraut Sim.Ishara'armoatic der Göttin Ishtar“ … mit dem akkadischen Qunnabu „Cannabis“ gleichgesetzt… und erinnert auch an die Pflanze mit dem Namen ki.na Istar ”(Reiner, 1995)
One who seems to have taken the stories of the Necronimicon quite literally, is M. Kienholz, who worked in the Spokane Police department for 18 years. In her book Opium Traders and Their Worlds, she ties the controversial grimoire with the 16th century magician John Dee, who she describes as “was Queen Elizabeth’s special agent” and his notorious scribe Edward Kelly a “charlatan and alchemist”, further suggesting Dee as a likely candidate for advising “the British to deal in opium”. In reference to the Necronimicon, she wrote that “While in Prague in 1586, Dee and Kelly searched out and plagiarized a copy of Necronimicon by Abdul Alhazred of Yemen, who developed a kind of incense containing ‘olibanum, storax, dictamus, opium and hashish’” (Kienholz, 2008). Although Kienholz’s claims don’t seem particularly credible, a case for Dee and Kelly’s use of psychoactive substances in their ritual scrying has been made.
For more on the role of cannabis and other drugs in the Magickal tradition, check out Liber 420: Cannabis, Magickal Herbs and the Occult.