Hemp Can Nonetheless Save the World
CANNABIS CULTURE – How Jack Herer was right – and Ed Rosenthal was wrong – about hemp ethanol.
So if you look at the news these days – or even the comedian version of the news from the talk show – you might notice that the world is on fire. The forests are burning and the ice caps are melting and the sea level is rising and the oceans are warming up and there is a massive death of wildlife and nobody seems to know what to do about it. I've been thinking and researching about it for a long time, and I have a few thoughts. The first thought is that you should familiarize yourself with the problem of man-made climate stabilization – I have a link here that will give you the basics.
Second, you should look for solutions. Not the solution "free a virus and kill half of humanity" and not nuclear power either – this is a scam.
The solution to man-made climate stabilization is hemp ethanol. What is hemp ethanol? Read more…
In 1985 Jack Herer published the first version of his epic work "The Emperor Wears No Clothes". It was a collection of facts about cannabis that had never before been packaged together.
Facts such as how it can provide the best medicine, food, fabric, building materials, and fuel on Earth – and how the government has been lying about the alleged dangers for decades. He distributed "Emperor" in the United States – sometimes right in front of high schools – which attracted media attention.
The most subversive part of Herer's book was the part that dealt with the destabilization of the climate and the ability of hemp to stabilize the climate again.
“Das Buch Solar Gas, 1980, Science Digest; The OMNI magazine, the Alliance for Survival, the "Green Party" in West Germany and others have estimated the total amount of our energy costs at eighty percent of our total cost of living for everyone. … Eighty-two percent of the TOTAL value of all emissions traded on the New York Stock Exchange, other world stock exchanges, etc. are directly related to 1) utilities (oil, Exxon, Shell, etc.), wells / coal-bound mines (Con Edison and so on); 2) energy transportation companies (pipeline, oil shipping and supply companies) and / or 3) refineries and retail sales (Exxon, Mobil, Shell, California, New York, Edison et al.) Eighty-two percent of all your dollars means approximately 33 of every 40 hours worked, you work to, in one way or another, pay the final energy cost for the goods and services you purchase (transportation, heating, cooking, lighting). Our current fossil energy sources also provide approximately 80 percent of the solid and airborne pollution that is slowly poisoning the planet. (See US EPA 1983 report on the impending world catastrophe due to the imbalance of carbon dioxide from fossil fuel burning and the lack of new fuels associated with the destruction of old plants).
The cheapest replacement for these expensive and wasteful energy methods are not wind or solar collectors, nuclear power plants, geothermal plants and the like, but the use of the natural scattered light from the sun to grow cellulose and convert it into methane gas and methanol. Wood alcohol. In the 1920s and 1930s, most American cars and agricultural vehicles were sold with the option of driving either methanol or gasoline, or both. During the gas shortage of World War II, methanol was used extensively by farmers and even the military. It is still used by most racing cars today. Methanol doesn't get dirty! When burning, only carbon dioxide and water vapors are released. and during growth three times as much carbon dioxide is consumed from the air before finally a third of it is released (when burned) … while oil or coal can only pollute the environment – never become clean – because their source – vegetation or dinosaurs – millions of people died years ago. The early oil barons, who were aware of the possibilities of the Ford methanol program in the 1920s (Henry Ford even grew marijuana on his estate after 1937 to prove the cheapness of methanol) and its cheapness, fell and kept the oil prices incredibly low – between $ 1.00 and $ 2.00 a barrel (there are 42 gallons in an oil barrel) for almost 50 years until 1970. So low that no other energy source could keep up with them … and when they were certain of the lack of competition the price jumped to almost $ 40 a barrel over the next ten years. … In the 1920s-30s, the production of large quantities of methanol was not economical due to the cheapness of oil and the almost identical costs for heating the cellulose. But with modern improvements … this is no longer the case … The fuel – HEMP or other celuloses – for the methanol supplies oxygen to the air during growth, consumes carbon dioxide for its cell structure and does not pollute when burned. Science Digest reports that in 1981-82 Cornell University developed an incredible new process that made cellulase degradation (composting) fifty times faster and cheaper than the 1920s and 30s. “ (1)
Wherever this book traveled, it created hemp activists or "hemp strikers," as they were called. Some of these copies of his book made it to Canada and made people like me, Dana Larsen, Chris Bennett, Chris Clay and Marc Emery into hemispheres. In fact, Marc Emery wore a button that reads "Hemp can save the EARTH" and shirts that read "HEMP CAN SAVE THE PLANET!"
But then something happened in November 1994 that took all the energy out of the hemp movement. Ed Rosenthal produced a book called "Hemp Today". (2)
In it he and his hemp fuel skeptic published Dr. David Walker made two chapters claiming that commercially viable hemp ethanol fuel was unrealistic. Rosenthal's chapter was called "Hemp Realities" and Walker's chapter was called "Can Hemp Save Our Planet?" Your arguments against Jack Herers and Lynn Osburn's summarized assessment of hemp ethanol are:
1) "… there are many plants that can produce higher biomass each year
base. “ (p. 76)
2) "Cannabis producers cannot keep up with the low waste paper prices." (p. 77)
3) "Hemp cannot be grown continuously in the same field without fertilizer." (p. 79)
4) Hemp needs too much water and too much land to meet modern fuel requirements (pp. 77-80).
5) "Energy production would only bring small profits to farmers." (p. 81)
6) "It would be dangerous to rely on one type or even a method for almost all of the energy requirements." (ibid.)
Assuming that we humans are able to transform society into a sustainable society in which subsidies are converted from non-renewable energy to renewable energy, with health and environmental costs in the cost of each product Influence When the red tape for industrial hemp is eliminated, hemp ethanol becomes economical immediately. None of these things are impossible or even technically difficult – they could all be done fairly easily as long as public pressure is sufficient. Obscenely rich people may need to be convinced that their control over the economy and wealth must be shared among millions of farmers so that people can survive, but this difficult task is not impossible either. A sustainable society is only a question of educating the entire society about the necessary steps.
The evidence against Rosenthal's claims can be summarized as follows:
"… there are many plants that can produce higher biomass each year."
There are two problems with this claim that arise when you look closely at the details. 1) Most authors who deal with hemp yield – including Rosenthal and Osburn – are to blame for not being precise when talking about biomass yields. Are we talking about "green weight" or "dry weight"? Is it the whole plant or just the stems? You have to show every time, or the numbers are meaningless. 2) High biomass alone does not necessarily mean a good fuel source – the evidence suggests that one must also take into account the costs per morning, the energy efficiency rate (how easily biomass becomes fuel) and the potential of this crop should be used as a carbon sink – so the greenhouse effect can be reversed.
The truth is that few sources identify the green / dry weight or the weight of the entire plant / stem, which makes accurate estimates difficult. However, there are indications from several sources that indicate that Rosenthal's estimate for hemp biomass production of 3 to 5 tons per morning (p. 71) is low (3).
Corn is currently the number one energy crop in the United States (4) – but only because corn is so heavily subsidized (5) and hemp is overregulated. In the past 20 years, the Canadian hemp industry has been under "strict controls". (6) A minimum of 10 acres must be grown. (7) The hemp must have a THC content of less than 0.3%. (8) The strain must be "approved". (9) Farmers are denied hundreds of potentially profitable industrial strains. (10) Hemp seeds must be rendered non-viable and tested for viability. (11) In the United States, people with criminal record for growing cannabis are not allowed to grow hemp. (12) This restriction was recently lifted in Canada after some farmers were wrongly excluded from commercial hemp professions for 20 years. (13)
Breeding licenses – which give access to the most economically rewarding element of industrial hemp production and enable farmers to be self-sufficient and independent – are difficult to obtain. You need the equivalent of a science degree and 10 years of experience with an accredited breeder. (14) The licensing rules for seed growers in the US are different, but still strict. (15) Hemp is so over-regulated that hemp seed for human consumption is the only reliable market for it, since hemp seed and hemp seed oil are so valuable as a source of essential fatty acids that consumers pay a high price for it, despite the extra cost of over-regulation. (16)
Hemp is a superior energy crop for many reasons. Hemp: A) does not need as much fertilizer or water as maize, ryegrass or other energy crops, (17) B) does not require the expensive drying of corn and sugar cane, (18) C) can be grown where other energy crops are grown can't, (19) D) has long been known as the plant with the lowest moisture and the highest cellulose – ideal for fuel production. According to a publication by Schafer and Simmonds in 1929, the hemp stalks are "over 75% cellulose", with more conservative estimates showing that the hurdles are between 32% and 38% cellulose, while the bark is between 53% and 74% lies. (20) E) is much more energy efficient than corn. An estimate says that corn has an energy gain of 34 percent, while hemp has an energy gain of 540 percent. (21) This means that hemp is almost 16 times as efficient as corn!
In addition, hemp F) is possibly the best carbon sink in the world. What is a carbon sink? This is a way to reverse the greenhouse effect and save the world, as cannabis activist Chris Conrad explains.
“Every harvest produces as much oxygen as later CO2, when every part of it is burned as fuel, which creates a balanced cycle. In addition, hemp deposits 10 percent of its mass as roots and up to 30 percent as leaves in the soil, which fall off during the growing season. This means that around 20 to 40 percent more oxygen can be produced per season than is later used as fuel – a net gain in clean air. Let us call it an "inverted greenhouse effect". (22)
Recent evaluations of hemp as a carbon sink see it as the "best possible option" (23) and as "more efficient than agricultural forestry" (24) and that it absorbs C02 "4 times faster than one Forest ". (25) As one research team said;
“With increasing global CO2 emissions, cannabis plants (hemp) grow naturally. For every ton grown above ground, another half a ton of carbon is stored as root mass in the soil, where it belongs. “ (26)
It is clear that hemp is the superior biofuel crop – when all the factors that make a good biofuel crop are taken into account. Only the fact that other crops are subsidized and hemp is over-regulated prevents hemp from being economically competitive at the moment. This situation could change overnight if the public became aware of the fraud behind the overregulation of hemp and the immediate environmental benefits that would result from replacing fossil fuels with hemp ethanol.
"Hemp producers cannot reach the low waste paper prices."
Waste paper itself would be made from hemp instead of trees if the red tape for industrial hemp was eliminated. Waste hemp paper would no doubt be used for many purposes, including the production of ethanol and the manufacture of recycled paper. Ideally, the waste paper that was not used for recycled paper could be sent to the cellulose production facility. Excess cellulose would also be taken from other sources there. However, replacing all of the world's gasoline would require more than cellulose, which has not yet been used for recycled paper. Plants dedicated to energy production would have to meet these requirements.
According to Rolling Stone (27), the US spends $ 649 billion on "direct and indirect coal, oil and gas subsidies" – and another $ 599 billion on the Pentagon budget, much of which is spent on Control of energy reserves in other countries. According to Forbes magazine, these fossil fuel subsidies are the main obstacle to the transition to a sustainable energy economy. (28)
If these subsidies are switched to renewable energy sources and if the health and environmental costs of each product are included in the price and if the red tape for industrial hemp is eliminated, fossil fuels and non-renewable energies will suddenly become too expensive for production and massive demand for renewable energy sources – including hemp ethanol – will suddenly make hemp profitable as a fuel.
"Hemp cannot be grown continuously in the same field without fertilizer."
That is true, but it is also true that hemp can supply its own fertilizer. Hemp can fertilize its own field in two ways. The first way is the old way – by "field blushing" – to let the rain flush the soil nutrients from the stems onto the field;
"When the crop is roasted in the field, almost all soluble nutrients are flushed into the soil during the reddening (Dewey, 1913)." (29)
According to another source, the need for hemp fertilization is minimal.
“As soon as hemp begins to grow, it needs very little maintenance. Fertilizers, especially those containing nitrogen, can help farmers achieve optimal fiber yields, but little else is required. “ (30)
Organic nitrogen sources include animal fertilizers and guanos, waste from fish and poultry processing plants and animal slaughterhouses, and cereals such as alfalfa, cotton seeds and soybeans. (31) There is evidence that reddening may not be ideal as a replacement for lost nitrogen. For better understanding, however, further studies with different fertilization methods are required. (32)
The second way that hemp can fertilize its own field is to produce "biochar" – a fertilizer / waste product through the pyrolysis hemp-ethanol fuel manufacturing process. The biochar is added to the field before the next year's hemp seeds are sown.
"Returning biochar to the soil rather than removing everything for power generation reduces the need for nitrogen fertilizers, thereby reducing costs and emissions in fertilizer production and transportation." (33)
It is clear that the benefits of biochar have not been fully exploited because hemp ethanol production has been hampered by over-regulation and unfair subsidies for hemp substitute products. With smarter subsidies and more appropriate regulations, the resulting conditions will enable research into fertilization and biochar techniques that will help hemp fertilization reach its full potential.
Hemp needs too much water and too much land to meet modern fuel requirements.
According to one source, the United States has 60 million acres of unused arable land. (34) According to another source, 52 million acres of fallow land, 38.1 million acres of ethanol (mainly from corn), 127.4 million acres of cattle feed and 21.5 million acres of wheat exports are still available in the United States , 13.6 million acres for "cotton / non-food", 62.8 million acres for the export of grain and animal feed, 77.3 million acres for domestic food production, a total of 391.5 million acres of arable land. (35) Separated from all this land use is cattle pasture which is extensive. (36)
If the health and environmental costs of the individual products were included in the price tag and the overregulation of hemp eliminated, hemp would suddenly replace a large part of these other crops. Fallow land could be replaced by hemp-ethanol cultivation, either in fields or with biochar to replenish the soil, while hemp would stifle all weeds. Corn for ethanol would be replaced with hemp for ethanol – a much more water and energy efficient choice. Cattle would become more expensive due to its environmental costs, and hemp seeds would suddenly become a preferred source of protein – and you could get both hemp seeds and hemp ethanol from the same crop. Cotton – which is pesticide and water-intensive – would be replaced by hemp as a substance. (37)
An estimate of how much US land is required to produce enough biomass energy to meet US needs is "6-8% of the land area of the 48 contiguous 48 states". (38) For comparison, 41% of the US area is used for feeding and grazing livestock. (39) Another method of calculating the area required is that one hectare of hemp can produce a thousand gallons of gasoline. (40) In 2012, people in the United States used 134 billion gallons of gasoline (41) less than in 2007 (142 billion). At 1,000 gallons per acre, this would replace 134 million acres of hemp ethanol acreage. If you add up all of the wasteland, corn, cotton, and half of the fodder, you'll get 167.4 million acres – more than enough to become self-sufficient.
The willingness to include health and environmental costs in the cost of each product is required to develop into a sustainable way. We are forced to consider ecology, the environment and the wellbeing of ourselves, farmers and future generations to survive. Many indigenous cultures have these ecological considerations as the foundation of their religious beliefs (42) – it is not impossible to imagine a global culture based on the same ecological foundation in both their economic and spiritual communities.
"Energy generation would bring little profit to farmers."
If subsidies from permanent subsidies for fossil fuels are converted into temporary subsidies for renewable energies – especially hemp ethanol – the economy will get the kickstart it needs to quickly replace gasoline. Hemp seeds, CBD and fertilizer can be obtained from the exact same crop that is grown as fuel. This means that farmers can not only use four sources of income from the same crop.
Hemp is currently rated as a fuel crop by a Polish fuel company;
“A state oil company in Poland has signed a contract to produce bioethanol from hemp. Grupa Lotos, one of the 10 top-selling fuel companies in Central Europe, has signed an agreement with the state institute for natural fibers and medicinal plants, Hemp Today reported. “ (43)
In 14 different US states, 17 plants for the production of cellulose-based ethanol are already in operation or under construction, with little or no subsidies being granted compared to subsidies for fossil fuels (44). Canada has 30 plants producing ethanol. (45) Switching subsidies from non-renewable to renewable energies would undoubtedly mean more. As industrial hemp is finally over-regulated, it can only become more profitable to provide hemp stalks as a raw material for the ever-growing number of ethanol manufacturing companies.
6) "It would be dangerous to rely on one way or even one method for almost all of your energy needs."
Perhaps it is an exaggeration to assume that the entire energy requirement can be covered with hemp. But since hemp is probably the best fuel crop and cellulosic ethanol is the only carbon negative choice of all options for renewable energy, hemp is an essential part of any switch to a sustainable energy grid and can make the difference between a vibrant bioethanol industry and a stagnant one. All renewable energy systems – sun, wind, waves, geothermal energy and cellulose-based ethanol – should be subsidized instead of non-renewable energy so that mankind is not dependent on a single energy source. Hemp production can be limited by the availability of land or water, or even one year of bad weather. Therefore, it makes sense to have many different options for renewable energies. However, it can also be argued that as a fuel source that can reverse the greenhouse effect, it can be grown almost anywhere on earth, stored in a tank and used when the sun is not shining and the wind is not blowing. and can provide food and medicine and weed control and fertilizer at the same time – hemp doesn't have the same.
Other fuel sources are climate neutral, but only cellulose-based ethanol can be climate neutral. And lithium car batteries have a huge carbon footprint and possibly landfill problems that cellulose ethanol doesn't. (46) Ethanol has the additional advantage that it does not need to be cleaned in the event of a spill – it simply evaporates. (47) Hemp can even grow in sand (48) and help turn desert regions into farmland (49). This enables almost every country on earth to be independent of energy, which would essentially end the armed conflict over limited energy resources. No more oil wars. No more oil pollution. No more climate stabilization. A $ 135 to $ 300 conversion kit turns any gas-powered car into a hemp-ethanol car. (50) Hemp ethanol would be about five times cheaper than gasoline on the pump (51) – the conversion kit pays for itself with just a few trips to the petrol station.
There was something else that Rosenthal was wrong about. In the preface to Hemp Today, Rosenthal stated that "the market" would decide whether hemp would succeed or not;
“Hemp has jumped from magazines such as The Ecologist and The High Times in the United States to press cables, television, and national magazines. Much of this media attention has accepted the "hemp hype" without research. Recent books have focused on the past of hemp and its idealized potential. A popular volume even claims that this plant alone can save the world from an ecological disaster. … Will it help us lead to a greener future, or is it just a dream? The market will decide in the next few years. “ (52)
The fact is that "the market forces" did not determine the form of the hemp economy, but rather an over-regulation due to Reefer Madness. In 1997 there was an opportunity to question this over-regulation. Unfortunately, another cannabis movement pioneer – Dave Watson – was there to make sure the rules weren't challenged.
Dave Watson was a man who was highly valued in the pot movement. Watson was Chairman of the International Hemp Association and President of Hortapharm the Dutch company that G.W. Medicines with all their cannabis genetics. His pseudonym was "Sam the Skunkman" in breeding circles. Watson was blown up in the U.S. city of Santa Cruz and appeared a month later in Holland to sell hundreds of thousands of amazing pot kernels. He also magically received the "only license to study medical cannabis in Holland". He certainly had some powerful, mysterious friends. (53)
Watson kam nach Vancouver, um auf dem kommerziellen und industriellen Hanfsymposium am 19. Februar am 1997 ( 54) – wo die Health Canada – die für die neuen Hanfvorschriften zuständige Regierungsbehörde – die „Legalisierung“ von Industriehanf ankündigte. Die strengen Kontrollen Hanf wurde unter ein garantiertes Saatgut-Züchter-Monopol gestellt – man brauchte eine zehnjährige Ausbildung unter einem anderen lizenzierten Züchter und einen wissenschaftlichen Abschluss. Und Dave Watson war da, um der Community diese Vorschriften als notwendig zu verkaufen. Die Art und Weise, wie Watson eine Diskussion über die Überregulierung / das Monopol auf dem Hanf-Symposium verhinderte, bestand darin, zu argumentieren, dass es sich bei einem solchen Gespräch um ein „Marihuana-Problem“ handelte und sie „die Themen trennten“. Während des Frage-und-Antwort-Teils seines Vortrags stellte ich eine Frage:
„Mein Anliegen ist es, dass Landwirte autark sind. Meine Frage an Sie lautet: Haben Sie das Gefühl, dass Hanf nachgewiesene Vorteile für die Umwelt und die Gesundheit bietet und dass wir diese Vorteile jetzt nutzen müssen und dass diese Vorschriften den Hanfanbau beeinträchtigen? es ist feige und vielleicht sogar unmoralisch, dass sich die Leute in der Hanfindustrie nicht gegen diese unnötigen Beschränkungen aussprechen? “
Herr. Watson war von meiner Frage unbeeindruckt und antwortete wie folgt:
„Glaubst du, es ist das Richtige, einen Mühlstein in die Hanfindustrie zu legen, indem man sie zwingt, Marihuana für dich zu legalisieren?
„Nicht für mich. Nicht für mich. Aber damit die Landwirte nicht zu dieser und jener Firma gehen müssen, um sie um Saatgut zu bitten, anstatt unser eigenes Saatgut anzubauen und sich selbst zu versorgen. Warum sollten wir uns diesen offensichtlich irrationalen (und vielleicht genozidalen) Interessen beugen müssen? “
"Meine persönlichen Meinungen spielen in dieser Ausgabe keine Rolle, aber ich denke, es gibt getrennte Themen … eine ist Industriehanf und eine ist Freizeit- und medizinisches Cannabis – sie gehören nicht zusammen."
„Sie haben meine Frage gehört.“
„Wir trennen die Themen, Sir. Dies ist keine Konferenz, um sich mit dem anderen auseinanderzusetzen. “ (55)
Damit verhinderte Watson, dass die einzige echte Möglichkeit einer Überregulierung von Industriehanf in einem öffentlichen Umfeld in Kanada – wenn nicht in ganz Nordamerika – in Frage gestellt wurde. Anstatt "auf dem Markt" zu entscheiden, welches Potenzial für Industriehanf besteht – wie Ed Rosenthal sagte -, entschied die kanadische Regierung mit Hilfe von Dave Watson.
Es sollte angemerkt werden, dass die Internationale Hanf-Vereinigung – deren Vorsitzender Dave Watson war – Anfang 1998 ein flüchtiges Protestschreiben an Health Canada veröffentlichte slightly looser regulations and slightly higher THC levels, but did not question the premise that hemp seed breeding should be limited to professionals (in fact it was argued that farmers should not be able to save, share, trade and sell their own seeds) and did not question the treatment of cannabis as a hard drug;
“Enforcement under a system similar to Europe will be nearly failure proof, if the new Canadian regulations follow Europe’s lead. The various European systems require that only certified hemp varieties can be purchased for sowing and only from a licensed seed seller, by a licensed grower with a declared end use for the crop. This system has proven quite effective everywhere it is used.” (56)
It’s “effectiveness” in preventing industrial hemp from achieving it’s true potential can be attested to by the lack of hemp paper, hemp clothing, hemp plastics, hemp concrete, hemp pressed particle board and hemp ethanol available for purchase, in spite of hemp being “legal” in Canada for the past 23 years.
It’s for these reasons that Ed Rosenthal was wrong about hemp ethanol, and Jack Herer was right. It turns out that Herer was correct when he said “I don’t know if hemp is going to save the world, but it’s the only thing that can.” (57)
- Jack Herer, Emperor Wears No Clothes, First Revised Edition, Queen of Clubs publishing, Seattle, Washington, December, 1985, pp. 65-66
- Hemp Today, Ed Rosenthal, editor, Quick Trading Company, San Francisco, 1994
- In the 11th edition of the Emperor, writer Lynn Osborn suggests Rosenthal’s estimate for hemp biomass production is low; “His 3.5 tons per acre is at the extreme low end of the yields that have been reported; eighteen tons per acre is at the high end.” Jack Herer, “The Emperor Wears No Clothes”, 11th ed., AH HA publishing, Van Nuys, California, 2000, p. 250
“A yield of 19.4 tonnes/ha (8.7 tons/acre) was recently reported in the Netherlands using a late maturing Japanese landrace (Van der Werfet aL, 1995b).”
Feasibility of Industrial Hemp Production in the United States Pacific Northwest, 1998, Agricultural Experiment Station, Oregon State University
This source then goes on to explain how different approaches to increasing hemp yield are likely to achieve even better results. As does this source:
“Research conducted by Dr. H.M.G. van der Werf showed that fiber hemp yields can be increased by about 30% by growing very late-flowering cultivars at a relatively low density (<300 plants /m2). The crop self-thins due to inter-plant competition, and it is harvested late in September.” Hemp Husbandry, Robert A. Nelson,
Internet Edition, Copyright 2000, https://www.hempbasics.com/hhusb/hh2cul.htm#HH23
“The Oregon study summarizes hemp yields reported by researchers from various countries since the 1900’s (Ehrensing). Early in this century, U.S. dry-stem yields ranged from 2 to 12.5 tons per acre, but averaged 5 tons per acre under good conditions. Research trials in Europe during the last four decades had dry-matter yields that ranged from 3.6 to 8.7 tons per acre. In the Netherlands, research trials during the late 1980’s reported dry-stem yields of 4.2 to 6.1 tons per acre.
Recent commercial production in England produced average dry-matter yields of 2.2 to 3 tons per acre on several thousand acres over several years. Experimental production in Canada during 1995 and 1996 yielded 2.5 to 3 tons of dry stems per acre. According to the study, some of the variation in yield can be attributed to different measurement practices. For example, European authors generally report total above-ground dry matter, including stems, leaves, and seed, versus the dry-stem yields reported by other researchers.” Industrial Hemp in the United States: Status and Market Potential–Potential U.S. Production and Processing, USDA, 2000 https://www.ers.usda.gov/publications/pub-details/?pubid=41757
Green stalks = 15,000 pounds per acre. Dry stalks = 10,000 pounds per acre.
Dry stalks, after dew retting: 6000 pounds per acre. Dewey, 1913, p. 336 1 US ton equals 2000 pounds, therefore dry stalks post-dew retting equals 3 tons/A
“Dempsey (1975) describes the various components of the total hemp plant biomass yield. He estimates that a good yield of green hemp plants would be about 40,000 kg/ha (36,000 lbs/A or 18 tons/A). The yield of green stems would be approximately 28,000 kg/ha (28 mt/ha, 24,976 lbs/A, or 12.49 tons/A.) These green-weight yield data are similar to Osburn’s 10 tons/A estimate. The total hemp plant dry weight would be about 16,500 kg/ha (14,700 lbs/A or 7.4 tons/A). Of that dry weight, about 10,500 kg/ha (9,400 lbs/A or 4.7 tons/A) would consist of dried stems (Dempsey, 1975).” Hemp Today, Ed Rosenthal, editor, Quick Trading Company, San Francisco, 1994, p. 99
- “Corn cobs and corn stover (the leaves, stalks, and cobs) are the most popular agricultural biomass.”
- “The federal government spends more than $20 billion a year on subsidies for farm businesses. About 39 percent of the nation’s 2.1 million farms receive subsidies, with the lion’s share of the handouts going to the largest producers of corn, soybeans, wheat, cotton, and rice.” https://www.downsizinggovernment.org/agriculture/subsidies
- Hemp, Mark Bourrie, Key Porter Books Limited, Toronto, Canada, 2003, p. 67
- Arthur Hanks, Canadian Hemp Trade Alliancepersonal communication, 2006
Producers will still be required to use approved varieties of certified seed that has been purchased from a member of the Canadian Seed Growers Association.9
- Arthur Hanks, Canadian Hemp Trade Alliancepersonal communication, 2006; See also: “In 1993 the VIR, with the sole support of the IHA, began a 4 year program to preserve and evaluate its Cannabis germplasm. The collection consists of 397 accessions of Cannabis seeds from three basic eco-geographical groups: Northern, Middle, and Southern, collected from 16 nations (Table 1). The collection represents wild and traditional cultivated varieties as well as products of plant improvement programs. The vast majority of the accessions are classified as low-THC chemotypes of Cannabis sativa L.” Maintenance of Cannabis germplasm in the Vavilov Research Institute Gene Bank – 1993, Nikolai Lemeshev1Lyudmila Rumyantseva1 and Robert C. Clarke2 http://www.internationalhempassociation.org/jiha/iha01101.html
“Thanks to the implementation of the joint VIR/IHA project, in 1993-1995 a total of 252 hemp accessions were reproduced. All of the samples were either very old seed reproductions (before 1989) or had a small number of seeds. Successful reproductions were received from 134 threatened accessions. In 55 accessions very small number of seeds were produced, so it would be necessary to repeat regeneration. In addition, repeated regeneration is required for 65 accessions, which yielded insufficient seed quantities in 1991-1992 before the VIR/IHA project started.” Maintenance of Cannabis germplasm in the Vavilov Research Institute Gene Bank – 1995, Sofia Kutuzova1Lyudmila Rumyantseva2 and Robert C. Clarke3
“The Cannabis collection preserved at the VIR consists of 496 accessions, representing the wide global diversity of this crop.” Maintenance of Cannabis germplasm in the Vavilov Research Institute Gene Bank – 1996, Sofia Kutuzova 1Lyudmila Rumyantseva 1Sergey Grigoryev 1 and Robert C. Clarke 2 http://www.internationalhempassociation.org/jiha/jiha4108.html
- Arthur Hanks, Canadian Hemp Trade Alliancepersonal communication, 2006
See also: “Plant Breeder: To be granted recognition as a fully qualified Plant Breeder an individual must meet the following criteria:
- Ph.D. in plant breeding plus 1 year independent plant breeding experience in a country participating in the OECD Seed Schemes;
– or –
- M.Sc. in plant breeding plus 3 years independent plant breeding experience in a country participating in the OECD Seed Schemes;
– or –
- B.Sc. in Agriculture plus 10 years on-the-job training (five years in a country participating in the OECD Seed Schemes) plus
release of a recognized variety; – or4. Ph.D. or M.Sc. in a closely related field/discipline plus seven years on-the-job training, including at least one year’s training in a country
participating in the OECD Seed Schemes. The number of years of training may be reduced depending on the amount and relevancy
of formal training in plant breeding and/or closely related field(s)/ discipline(s);
– or –
- Ph.D., M.Sc., or B.Sc. in an unrelated field/discipline plus qualification as an Associate Plant Breeder plus successful completion of graduate level course work or equivalent in plant breeding.”
- “Focus on where you are going to sell your product and seek contracts with food producers. If you can secure this, you will be able to confidently move ahead with planting your crops,”
- “Hemp requires a plentiful supply of moisture throughout its growing season, especially during the first 6 weeks. After it has become well rooted and the stalks are 20 to 30 inches high it will endure drier conditions …”
“Compared with other crops, hemp requires a low level of irrigation and fertilizers after its establishment (Amaducci et al., 2008b; Gandolfi et al., 2013).” Valorisation of hemp inflorescence after seed harvest: Cultivation site and harvest time influence agronomic characteristics and essential oil yield and composition, IND CROP PROD, Jul 2019, Roberta Ascrizzi, Lucia Ceccarini, Silvia Tavarini, […]Luciana G. Angelini https://www.researchgate.net/publication/49639495_Bioconversion_of_industrial_hemp_to_ethanol_and_methane_The_benefits_of_steam_pretreatment_and_co-production/amp?fbclid=IwAR0ic_YH4FF_BxHyGd_jSflKVRdKybab5PA_WzbDbQavPlsn4cJtWZiRXPU
“Unlike flax, hemp is naturally resistant to most pests and diseases and actually acts as a deterrent to weeds. Furthermore, unlike kenaf and other fiber crops, hemp withstands most changes in temperature, making it suitable for growth in many areas.” Dwyer, Susan David (1998) “The Hemp Controversy: Can Industrial Hemp Save Kentucky?,” Kentucky Law Journal: Vol. 86 : Iss. 4 , Article 12.
“Canadian hemp farmers already profit around $250 an acre—up to ten times as much as they’d be getting for corn crops. While using about half the water, which actually allows dry cropping in places that have been ravaged by drought.”
“Can Hemp Really Save the World?” David Bienenstock, Apr 7 2014 https://www.vice.com/en_us/article/mv5b8x/the-great-hemp-experiment-begins?fbclid=IwAR0z-tCILMAp7BuPGtAFIXqox9i96PiAK7N3bgz81_7fbxP5VmmU8KkE1Wc
- “The Hawaiian Natural Energy Institute (’s) … 1990 report concluded that thermochemical (pyrolytic) production of methanol from biomass is the most economical alternative for transportation fuel. They also confirmed Stanford Research Institute’s conclusion from the late seventies that woody or low moisture herbaceous plants are the most efficient biomass resource for thermochemical conversion into liquid fuels such as methanol. It is the cellulose in low moisture herbaceous and woody plants that provides the hydrocarbons necessary for fuel production. Hemp stalks are over 75% cellulose. Hemp is both a low moisture herbaceous and a woody plant.” Jack Herer, “The Emperor Wears No Clothes”, 11th ed., AH HA publishing, Van Nuys, California, 2000, p. 252
- “With the ability to be grown at all but the very coldest latitudes, Cannabis could form the basis of an internationally distributed (yet locally determined) fuel industry. The chemical composition (high cellulose) and physiology of
Cannabis make it an ideal feedstock for ethanol production in comparison to the starch based crops currently used in the US and South America (Lorenz and Morris, 1995).” “Could Cannabis Provide an Answer to Climate Change?”
Marc R. Deeley, Journal of Industrial Hemp, Vol. 7(1) 2002 http://www.internationalhempassociation.org/pdf/J237.pdf?fbclid=IwAR15I56Tk1Lu6ZrSa4rdQIPnyw1pRDDnwCwVQ6stUPm9HUqCnGVVtZ8-BsU
“Hemp can flourish in conditions considered less than optimum, and will usually produce more than competitor crops in such instances.”
“Biogas from hemp turned out to be a high yielding alternative to the currently dominating renewable transportation fuels produced from crops grown in Sweden: ethanol from wheat and biodiesel from rapeseed.”
“This study examined the energy yield of hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) cultivated for energy purposes under cold climate conditions in Northern Europe. … As a solid fuel, the adjusted biomass energy yield of hemp was 120% higher than that of wheat straw and similar to that of reed canary grass.”
- For the “over 75% cellulose” stat, please see: “Physical and Chemical Characteristics of Hemp Stalks and of Seed Flax Straw”, E. R. Schafer F. A. Simmonds Ind. Eng. Chem. 1929, 21, 12, 1241-1244, Publication Date: December 1, 1929
“For a start, cellulose content of hemp hurds has been found to vary between 32 and 38 % (Bedetti and Ciaralli 1976, van der Werf 1994). Possibly, Herer confuses the hurds, which form the woody core of the hemp stem, with the bark, which forms the outer layer of the hemp stem. The bark contains the long bast fibres which are used in textile manufacturing. The cellulose content of the bark is much higher than that of the core. It has been found to lie between 53 and 74 % (Bedetti and Ciaralli 1976, van der Werf 1994).” “Hemp facts and hemp fiction”, Hayo M.G. van der Werf, International Hemp Association, Postbus 75007, 1070 AA Amsterdam, the Netherlands, http://www.hempfood.com/IHA/iha01213.html
“There is much work to be done as far as cultivating plants with high cellulose content to be used for fuel. The much-maligned hemp plant (a fibrous industrial version of marijuana) has been known to provide cellulosic stands 14 feet tall when irrigated in good soils. With cellulose yields of five tones or more per acre, hemp could be a new contender in the energy field, possibly yielding 900 to 1000 gallons per acre in six months.” ALCOHOL CAN BE A GAS, David Blume, The International Institute for Ecological Agriculture, Santa Cruz, California, 2008, p. 133
- “There is no question that “corn ethanol is energy efficient.” It has “an energy ratio of 1.34 [, which means] for every BTU dedicated to producing ethanol there is a 34 percent energy gain. Unfortunately, corn puts high demands on land and water resources, and producing biofuel from it is energy and resource-intensive. Industrial hemp, by comparison, because of its high cellulose content has an estimated 540 percent energy gain.”
THE LEGALIZATION OF INDUSTRIAL HEMP AND WHAT IT COULD MEAN FOR INDIANA’S BIOFUEL INDUSTRY Nicole M. Keller, 2013, p. 577
- Chris Conrad, “Hemp – Lifeline to the Future”, Creative Xpressions Publications, Novato, California, 1994, p. 72
- “Utilisation of biomass in both the energy and transport sectors holds several benefits not least because these can be used to offset or substitute directly for fossil fuels thereby reducing emissions of Greenhouse Gases (GHGs), particularly carbon dioxide (CO2), while simultaneously sequestrating atmospheric CO2 via photosynthesis by creating and enhancing terrestrial “carbon sinks” (IPCC, 1996b). Following the United States’ refusal to consider serious reductions in their emissions, “carbon sinks” are now a universally agreed method to achieve atmospheric carbon reductions as set out in the Kyoto Protocol. The IPCC (1996b) considers fast-growing hardwoods to be the best possible option. Cannabis is, therefore, perfectly placed to be utilised in this area given its chemical composition, which is comparable to that of a hardwood (van der Werf et al., 1999) and rapid growth cycle compared to other high cellulose content organisms.”
Marc R. Deeley, Could Cannabis Provide an Answer to Climate Change? Journal of Industrial Hemp, Vol. 7(1), 2002, pp. 133-138
See article beginning at page 133: http://www.internationalhempassociation.org/pdf/J237.pdf
- “One hectare of industrial hemp can absorb 22 tonnes of CO2 per hectare. It is possible to grow to 2 crops per year so absorption is doubled. Hemp’s rapid growth (grows to 4 metres in 100 days) makes it one of the fastest CO2-to-biomass conversion tools available, more efficient than agro-forestry.”
- “These fuels have great advantages over the current bio-fuels on the market today, which are energy, land and resource intensive. ‘Hemp is seen as an environmentally friendly alternative to cotton, since growing hemp uses far less irrigation and little or no pesticide, herbicide or fertilizer. Hemp can also absorb carbon monoxide 4 times faster than a forest,’ the journalist explains in the following video.”
- “Cannabis is an ancient “C3” plant species which means it can absorb CO2 up to 1200 parts per million. Our modern “C4” plants reach saturation and do not absorb additional CO2 beyond 500 ppm as cannabis does. Cannabis has this remarkable ability to absorb CO2 directly from the atmosphere. As global CO2 levels rise, cannabis (hemp) plants grow larger naturally. For every ton grown above-ground, another half a ton of carbon is stored in the soil as root mass, where it belongs. This creates a “carbon negative” opportunity to capture CO2 for the life of the products made from the crop.” CannaSystems Canada Inc., White Paper, p. 11
The world would be richer and healthier if the full costs of fossil fuels were paid, according to a new report from the International Monetary Fund,” TIM DICKINSON
“The IMF found that direct and indirect subsidies for coal, oil and gas in the U.S. reached $649 billion in 2015. Pentagon spending that same year was $599 billion.”
- “Fossil Fuel Subsidies And Impact Greenwashing Are Stalling The Energy Transition”, Wal van Lierop
“The retting process of the straw allows nutrients like nitrogen and potassium to be leached out and accumulate in the soil under the swaths. Of all the nutrients, phosphorus has the highest percentage stored in the seed. The other nutrients are more inclined to be stored in the stalks.”
- Dwyer, Susan David (1998) “The Hemp Controversy: Can Industrial Hemp Save Kentucky?,” Kentucky Law Journal: Vol. 86 : Iss. 4 , Article 12.
- “Hemp has need for nitrogen to grow well, but this can be satisfied by manure, which is environmentally advantageous where there is a surplus of manure”
A comparison of the biodiversity friendliness of crops with special reference to hemp (Cannabis sativa L.), Suzanne Montford, Journal of the International Hemp Association, Vol. 6 No. 2 December 1999
- “Nevertheless, hemp production, including a field retting period, may cause problems of nitrate leaching in water catchments when high amounts of lost plant material is rapidly decomposed in Autumn. Hence, cropping fiber hemp as silage without field retting should be tested as an alternative method.” Hemp: a ground water protecting crop? Yields and nitrogen dynamics in plant and soil Katja Hendrischke1Thomas Lickfett1and Hans-Bernhard von Buttlar,Journal of the International Hemp Association, Vol. 5 No. 1 June 1998http://www.internationalhempassociation.org/jiha/jiha5109.html
- “A 212-page online report published by the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization says 26 percent of the earth’s terrestrial surface is used for livestock grazing.”
“I am not suggesting that we plant hemp on all US pastureland though hemp will grow quite well on it. Raising livestock on pastures is incredibly inefficient land use, but we make it profitable anyway because a good many of us enjoy eating meat. When we desire fresh air and a stable ecosystem in a clean environment as much as we enjoy eating meat we will make energy farming more than profitable.”
Lynn Osburn, quoted in Jack Herer, “The Emperor Wears No Clothes”, 11th ed., AH HA publishing, Van Nuys, California, 2000, p. 250 http://www.digitalhemp.com/eecdrom/HTML/EMP/AA/ECH19.HTM#response
- “In terms of water consumption, cotton requires 9,758 kg of water per kg, while hemp requires between 2,401 and 3,401 kg of water per kg.” Ecological Footprint and Water Analysis of Cotton, Hemp and Polyester, Nia Cherrett, John Barrett, Alexandra Clemett, Matthew Chadwick, M.J. Chadwick, 2005, Stockholm Environment Institute https://mediamanager.sei.org/documents/Publications/SEI-Report-EcologicalFootprintAndWaterAnalysisOfCottonHempAndPolyester-2005.pdf
“The water footprint of cotton textile is more than three times larger than the water footprint of industrial hemp textile. Products of industrial hemp textile have many advantages over products of cotton textile: industrial hemp is four times softer, industrial hemp is three to eight times stronger, industrial hemp is much more durable, industrial hemp is flame retardant, industrial hemp is not affected by UV rays, industrial hemp is very breathable but also very moisture absorbent. The production areas of cotton textile are for a greater part in water scarce regions in the world. Industrial hemp is mainly grown in parts of the world were a little or no water scarcity is, so production of industrial hemp is less stressful for the environment.”
Global Water Footprint of Industrial Hemp Textile, J. Averink, September 2015, University of Twente, Netherlands https://essay.utwente.nl/68219/1/Averink,%20J.%200198501%20openbaar.pdf
“Conventionally grown cotton uses more insecticides than any other single crop and epitomizes the worst effects of chemically dependent agriculture. Each year cotton producers around the world use nearly $2.6 billion worth of pesticides — more than 10 per cent of the world’s pesticides and nearly 25 per cent of the world’s insecticides. Cotton growers typically use many of the most hazardous pesticides on the market including aldicarb, phorate, methamidophos and endosulfan. Cotton pesticides are often broad spectrum organophosphates — pesticides originally developed as toxic nerve agents during World War II — and carbamate pesticides.” https://www.ethical.org.au/3.4.2/get-informed/issues/cotton-pesticides/
- 18.19.ENERGY FROM BIOMASS: “Meeting U.S. demands for oil and gas would require that about 6-8% of the land area of the contiguous 48 states be cultivated intensively for biomass production.”
- “… Bloomberg article states that when you combine land used for animal feed and actual grazing land itself, a whopping 41% of US land (nearly 800 million acres) is used to feed farm animals.”
- “Colorado biomass fuels consultant Agua Das and Colorado School of Mines chemical engineer Thomas B. Reed reported that an acre of hemp can produce power equivalent to a thousand gallons of gasoline.”
Hemp Bound, Doug Fine, Chelsea Green Publishing, White River Junction, Vermont, 2014, p. xxx; See also: http://crrh.org/news/content/biomass-fuels-hemp
- “Lithium Batteries’ Dirty Secret: Manufacturing Them Leaves Massive Carbon Footprint: Once in operation, electric cars certainly reduce your carbon footprint, but making the lithium-ion batteries could emit 74% more CO2 than for conventional cars.” Bloomberg, OCT 16, 2018, https://www.industryweek.com/technology-and-iiot/article/22026518/lithium-batteries-dirty-secret-manufacturing-them-leaves-massive-carbon-footprint “At the moment, recycling lithium-ion car batteries is long-winded and inefficient. In some cases, a battery is shredded and separated into its components, where some materials such as metal may be able to be reused. Or, if it may still hold some charge, it is frozen in liquid nitrogen and smashed into bits. It is estimated that only 20% of the materials can be reused after these processes.” https://www.thegreenage.co.uk/tech/environmental-footprint-electric-cars/
- “CAMBRIA — There will be no action taken to clean up the site of an ethanol spill from a railroad derailment, but monitoring wells will be installed. State pollution officials said boring tests from the site near Cambria in Blue Earth County showed the soil is naturally very high in organic material, which will help speed the evaporation of ethanol and a small amount of gasoline. And they found the ethanol is being contained well by clay under the topsoil and there has been no migration of pollutants and no pollutants detected in the Minnesota River. ‘They think is will naturally evaporate rather quickly,’ said Nancy Miller, a spokeswoman for the Minnesota Pollution Control Agency. Six Dakota, Minnesota and Eastern Railroad cars derailed Nov. 22 with 30,000 gallons of ethanol, mostly from one tanker, spilling into the dry bed of the Little Cottonwood River.” http://mankatofreepress.com/local/x519261231/Ethanol-spill-decision-No-cleanup-required https://www.cannabisculture.com/content/2010/05/23/hemp-ethanol-spill-would-just-evaporate/
- Marijuana Medicine, Christian Ratsch, Healing Arts Press, Rochester, Vermont, 2001, p. 64
- “How hemp could save Afghanistan and the world”, Reverend Damuzi, April 12, 2005 https://www.cannabisculture.com/content/2005/04/12/4272/ “Growing hemp in the desert”, Jun 10, 2019 https://www.havasunews.com/growing-hemp-in-the-desert/article_67d77e50-8c11-11e9-9c03-138d6e48f34d.html “The ‘underground forests’ that are bringing deserts to life”, Geoffrey Lean, 12 Jul 2013, https://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/earth/10176217/The-underground-forests-that-are-bringing-deserts-to-life.html “How to reclaim deserts and reverse climate change”, JO · PUBLISHED JULY 11, 2015 · UPDATED AUGUST 22, 2017 http://healingearth.info/reclaim-deserts-reverse-climate-change/
- “According to biofuel expert Tim Castleman, hemp ethanol could be produced for 1.37 per gallon plus the cost of the feedstock, with technological improvements and tax credits reducing the price another dollar or so per gallon!” CIFAR Conference XIV, “Cracking the Nut: Bioprocessing Lignocellulose to Renewable Products and Energy”, June 4, 2001
http://fuelandfiber.com/Hemp4NRG/Hemp4NRGRV3.htm (dead link) http://potfacts.ca/hemp-ethanol-is-about-five-times-cheaper-than-gasoline/
“Hemp Cellulose for Ethanol: Another approach will involve conversion of cellulose to ethanol, which can be done in several ways including gasification, acid hydrolysis and a technology utilizing engineered enzymes to convert cellulose to glucose, which is then fermented to make alcohol. Still another approach using enzymes will convert cellulose directly to alcohol, which leads to substantial process cost savings.
Current costs associated with these conversion processes are about $1.37[vi]per gallon of fuel produced, plus the cost of the feedstock. Of this $1.37, enzyme costs are about $0.50 per gallon; current research efforts are directed toward reduction of this amount to $0.05 per gallon. There is a Federal tax credit of $0.54 per gallon and a number of other various incentives available. Conversion rates range from a low of 25-30 gallons per ton of biomass to 100 gallons per ton using the latest technology.”
- Hemp Today, Ed Rosenthal, Quick American Archives, Oakland California, 1994, pp. xv-xvi
- “The Mysterious Mr. Watson”, Steven Hager, September 9, 2018 https://stevenhager.net/2018/09/09/16076/ See also: “Who is the real King of Cannabis?”, Steven Hager, September 9, 2018 https://stevenhager.net/2018/09/09/who-is-the-real-king-of-cannabis/ DAVID WATSON AKA SAM THE SKUNKMAN AKA SAM SELEZNY AKA Dr. FrankenbeanStein AKA Dr. FrankenWeedStein AKA King of Snitchcraft https://pastebin.com/rDUaWDYK
- Canada’s Commercial and Industrial Hemp Symposium http://www.internationalhempassociation.org/jiha/jiha4118.html
- Transcripts of the Commercial & Industrial Hemp Symposium, February 19th1997, quoted in Vansterdam Comix, David Malmo-Levine & Bob High, WEEDS, Vancouver, 2018, pp. 151-157 See also: The HempenRoad (1997) ~ Documentary about industrial cannabis and medical marijuana @ 1:11:39 https://vimeo.com/122077349
- IHA Reply to Proposals for Canadian Industrial Hemp Regulations, Submitted to Jean Peart, Manager, Hemp Project, Health Canada by the International Hemp Association on January 5, 1998 http://www.internationalhempassociation.org/jiha/jiha4222.html
- “Hemp Is Finally Legal. Let’s See if It Can Save the World”, David Bienenstock