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Hashish Take a look at Guidelines: A State Information

hashish-take-a-look-at-guidelines-a-state-information

Leafly StaffFebruary 24, 2020

This guide was updated on February 24, 2020.

In most states of law, cannabis products that you purchase from a licensed facility must undergo a series of tests by a state-approved laboratory. These tests help ensure that products can be consumed safely and labeled precisely. Laboratory tests primarily examine the effectiveness and content of THC and CBD, pesticide residues, undesirable contaminants and the presence of mycotoxins such as mold and mildew. But as with everything in the cannabis world, the requirements can vary widely from state to state.

The importance of the required laboratory tests was confirmed during the outbreak of the VAPI lung injury in 2019. Vitamin E oil, the culprit of the outbreak, has not been specifically tested by most cannabis laboratories – at least initially, not. With most states needing laboratory-verified data on the effectiveness of vape cartridge oil, the number of carts cut with vitamin E oil sold in licensed, regulated stores and pharmacies remained close to zero.

If you value your health, insist on laboratory-tested product safety and effectiveness. If your state does not require this, contact your legislator and request it.

Alabama

Cannabis is not legal in Alabama. So: no exam.

Currently, the only legal option is the "Carly Law," which allows select patients to legally own and use CBD oil with permission from officials from the University of Alabama-Birmingham's Department of Neurology. Carly's law does not provide for an audit.

Alaska

As in many states, Alaska's marijuana test system has been plagued from one laboratory to the next by inconsistent test results, leading to persistent doubts about the accuracy of the information on a particular product's label.

The lack of accountability in the laboratory led cannabis producers to go shopping in the laboratory to search from laboratory to laboratory for the highest THC or lowest levels of pollutants. This left consumers with little confidence in the percentages on a particular label.

Alaska Marijuana Control Board officials updated the test regulations in 2019, partly to address these gaps. The new rules provide random and supplemental samples for testing at the Board's discretion and expand the list of contaminants for which each batch must be tested, including some pesticides and heavy metals. (You can find these updated rules here; scroll down to Article 6.)

From early 2020, certified laboratories in Alaska will test the effectiveness of cannabinoids (including THC, THCA, CBD, CBDA and CBN), microbial contamination, solvent residues and heavy metals.

Arizona

The robust medical marijuana industry in Arizona has been operating for years without the need for testing. This should change on November 1, 2020, when all pharmacies have to test their products.

From this date, products are tested for microbial contamination, heavy metals, pesticides, herbicides, fungicides, growth regulators and solvent residues. Cannabis products are also tested to determine the effectiveness of cannabinoids. The Arizona Department of Health will license third-party laboratories to perform the tests.

In 2019, legislators in Arizona tried to make medical cannabis more widely available, taking the long overdue step of certifying the testing of these products. This means that from September 2019, a handful of established test laboratories in Arizona have been brought under state control. Previously, these laboratories operated without regulation, meaning that the quality of the products they produced, although allowed to work, did not meet an enforceable standard for effectiveness or safety. Under SB 1494, this step closes a gap in a state law that was passed in 2010.

Arkansas

Arkansas passed cannabis testing standards in May 2017, a year after lawmakers legalized the sale and possession of medical marijuana. But it wasn't until March 2019 that the first test laboratory operated by Steep Hill opened, and it wasn't until May 2019 that medical marijuana was actually released for sale.

Under state law, laboratories are largely self-monitoring, but follow ISO standards for testing, including pesticides, solvents, moisture levels, microbial contaminants and heavy metals, and other elements from each batch. Any medical cannabis product that does not pass tests or does not meet government standards must be sterilized or destroyed.

Of particular importance in the special features of the state law is the requirement that the labeling of medical marijuana in Arkansas is not "attractive for minors", although unfortunately this is not further defined.

California

Testing in the Golden State stabilized after a rocky start that included a series of product recalls that were mistakenly and intentionally released by test laboratories, but were later found to be contaminated. The state is now demanding that all cannabis products be tested for cannabinoids, terpene, mycotoxins and heavy metals in addition to the moisture content, the remaining solvents, pesticides and microbial contaminants. At the end of 2019, many laboratories set themselves the task of testing for vitamin E acetate, the main cause of the VAPI lung outbreak, and the state was on the brink of a stubborn ban on vape products before opting for an educational approach decided to evaporate contaminants.

California's Test Requirements: All in One Chart. (Courtesy of the California Bureau of Cannabis Control)

Colorado

As in California, Colorado began calling on cannabis growers in 2018 to submit their flower and trim batches – for both recreational and medicinal purposes – after a few recalls for testing for mycotoxins, heavy metals, and other pesticides. This adds to the many other contaminants and conditions that have already been tested under state law. And like in California, growers complain about the cost of $ 100 per variety. They say that as a result they may have to offer fewer strains to test and thus sell.

The state appears to double in testing: on August 15, 2019, the Marijuana Enforcement Division added concentrates to the list of Colorado cannabis products that need to be tested for mycotoxins. In response to concerns about vaping-related diseases, the state's marijuana enforcement department banned marijuana concentrate or, effective January 1, 2020, vitamin E acetate, polyethylene glycol (PEG), and medium-chain triglycerides (MCT oil) for use in the manufacture of regulated diseases regulated inhaled marijuana products. Read more about it here.

Here is the full list of tests in Colorado and a comprehensive overview of how the state regulates the testing process.

Connecticut

Medical cannabis testing regulations in Connecticut are similar to those in other states. They demand self-controlled tests for practically all of the same contaminants, including mycotoxins, heavy metals and pesticide residues.

State law also requires that each medical marijuana brand label display the results of the effectiveness of laboratory tests, including a terpene and cannabinoid profile, including THC, THCA, CBD, CBDA and all other active ingredients that are at least 1% make up the batch of marijuana used in the product.

Delaware

Delaware's medical marijuana system is known to be one of the least considered in the nation, and this includes testing requirements.

State law prohibits any use of pesticides in products grown and sold in "compassion centers" because the state government refers to medical pharmacies. Compassion centers are also legally obliged to act as non-profit organizations.

Interestingly, "pesticides" is the only category of contaminants defined in the law that picks out organochlorides, organophosphates, cargamates and insecticidal, fungicidal or growth-regulating compounds. It is not necessary to check for the presence of heavy metals.

According to the regulations, the compassion center must also contain the name of the cannabis strain, the cannabinoid profile and the amount of medical marijuana dispensed.

District of Columbia

Washington, DC, legalized medical marijuana and adult cannabis use in 2014 in 1998. However, due to the interference of Congress, the first medical pharmacies were not opened until 2013. There are no licensed and operated adult cannabis shops – again, because members of Congress objected to the idea.

District medical cannabis must go through a series of rigorous tests that examine: moisture levels, water activity, terpene and cannabinoid levels (THC, THCA, CBD, CBDA, CBN), foreign body contamination, microbial and / or mycotoxin contamination, heavy metals ( Arsenic, cadmium, lead, mercury), pesticide and / or fertilizer residues, solvent residues and homogeneity (for food).

Florida

Florida has third-party cannabis test labs that are operational, and many manufacturers and pharmacies use these labs. However, testing for toxins and contaminants in medical marijuana products is currently entirely voluntary. There are no government regulations that require specific testing.

At the end of 2018 it was reported that "apart from some regulations on potency, there are no specific guidelines". Senate Bill 8A, which regulates medical marijuana testing in Florida, said nothing about certain contaminants; It was only said that tested marijuana "should be safe for human consumption and free from human contamination". The State Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services also had to set the maximum allowable levels for pollutants. That still has to happen.

Senate Draft 182, which allowed the sale and use of smokable cannabis flowers, entered into force on March 18, 2019 – but contained no further guidelines as to what exactly the state cannabis test laboratories should test for.

Later law enforcement guidelines issued by the state in April 2019 did not mention specific contaminants or their permitted maximum values. They seem to be more concerned with safety, custody chain, and removal of products from children. The only requirement is that the products have their laboratory-verified THC and CBD values.

In 2019, the Gainesville Sun reported that some cannabis producers shop in the laboratory and go door-to-door with contaminated products to various tests until they achieve "clean" results. "It's just the wild west out there," said a laboratory operator.

The most important snack for medical marijuana patients is: buyers pay attention. Ask a lot of questions in your pharmacy. Request to see the test results of the batch you may be buying. And tell your legislator that it is unacceptable for medical patients to take untested and potentially contaminated medication.

Georgia

It's legal to own CBD oil in Georgia since 2015, and it's the only form of cannabis that won't put you in jail. In March 2019, Republican-controlled lawmakers passed a law that allowed the sale of low-THC CBD oil. Low THC is defined in Georgia as a product that contains no more than 5% THC. Products will only be available in liquid form, and the use of non-organic pesticides in the production of raw cannabis is not permitted.

The new Georgia Access to Medical Cannabis Commission will set test rules, but the commission just had its first meeting in December 2019, so rules may take some time to be enforced.

Hawaii

Medical cannabis has been legal here since 2016, but the industry started slowly since the test laboratories only opened in the summer of 2018, roughly parallel to the state's first approved growers.

According to state law, tests are carried out for pesticides (although Hawaii's farmers largely avoid them) as well as for heavy metals, solvents, moisture content, microbial contaminants, intestinal bacteria and pathogens, "dangerous molds that can cause infections, and disease" and "by molds." produced toxins ”.

The state laboratories set tough standards early on. Steep Hill, which operates two of the four Aloha state laboratories, declined 20% to 30% of the batches tested at the end of 2018, mainly due to the presence of bacteria, mold, yeast and other biological contaminants.

Idaho

All forms of cannabis are illegal in Idaho, but advocates are working to include a medical legalization initiative in nationwide voting in November 2020.

Illinois

Medical cannabis pharmacies have been operating nationwide since 2015, and on January 1, 2020, the first adult cannabis stores in the state opened.

In addition to microbiological contaminants, mycotoxins, the list of contaminants that must be checked under state law also includes "chemical pesticide residues" and "solvent residues" without mentioning heavy metals.

Kentucky

All forms of cannabis except hemp are illegal in Kentucky.

Maine

Maine has for years been one of many states that have banned pesticides and contaminants in their medical cannabis, but have not required testing of these products.

This changed in September 2019 when Maine lawmakers drafted and passed emergency laws that set specific but self-controlled standards and test protocols for medical marijuana, including heavy metal limits. This was partly in response to a number of complaints about medical marijuana patient illnesses. Tests on products used by these people have shown harmful solvents such as naphtha, which is used in paint thinners and alcohol, as well as a number of pesticides, molds and harmful bacteria.

Maryland

After the nationwide VAPI outbreak in 2019, Maryland lawmakers expanded government testing requirements to include the presence of toxic heavy metal levels in medical cannabis. This means that the tests must now be carried out both in the growth stage (flower) and in the processing stage (oil). Legislators call the step – which is only necessary for vaping products – a correction of an oversight in the original medical marijuana law.

Lead is the culprit, but chromium, manganese and nickel have also been identified as problematic contaminants. State law, which covers all medical marijuana products – not just vape carts – also requires product batches to be tested for hair, insects, mold, and microbiological contaminants.

Massachusetts

As with most parts of the cannabis regulatory system, the Massachusetts Cannabis Control Commission sets high national standards for how the state works. Laws related to marijuana can be found here; You can find specific threshold values ​​for contaminants here.

First: No pesticides are allowed – also no organic pesticides. None. Nada.

Second, Massachusetts associates certain tests with certain types of products, a specificity that cannot be found in any constitutional state. Here is an illustration of products and tests:

Massachusetts: Test protocols for various products

"MIPs" stands for Marijuana Infused Products. (Table: Massachusetts Cannabis Control Commission)

Michigan

Michigan sets clear standards for cannabis testing. After years of confusion and delay, the state's new comprehensive cannabis office, the Marijuana Regulatory Agency, appears to be acting clearly and decisively when it comes to keeping products clean and consumers safe.

In November 2019, the MRA of Michigan passed one of the country's smartest rules when other states responded to the VAPI crisis with jerky vape bans. The agency banned the use of vitamin E oil and restricted all future vape additives to substances that have been approved by the FDA as an inhalant. (Vitamin E oil is known to have been approved by the FDA as a topical skin care product, but not as an inhalation agent.) The MRA also announced twice-monthly inspections of the processing equipment to ensure compliance with these standards.

As of early 2020, Michigan regulations required tests for cannabinoid and terpene efficacy, foreign bodies, microbial and mycotoxin contamination, pesticide and chemical residues, fungicides, and the presence of solvent residues.

Minnesota

Minnesota has vaguely set test standards for medical cannabis, but has left the implementation of those standards to its certified laboratories. The “analytes” that laboratories have to test for in each batch include pesticide residues and plant growth regulators, heavy metals, mycotoxins, microbiological contaminants and solvent residues.

In response to concerns about the safety of vape products available to medical cannabis patients, Minnesota's sanctioned MMJ manufacturers say their products are safe and that they do not contain vitamin E acetate and other highlighted contaminants use in their production. However, they added that they would run additional tests to "further validate our formulas." So far, they have been monitoring themselves. The state does not prescribe new test standards. But that didn't stop Minnesota governor Tim Walz from requesting a nationwide ban on vape carts.

Mississippi

All forms of marijuana are illegal in Mississippi.

Missouri

Medical cannabis was approved here in 2018, and pharmacies are expected to open in mid-2020. As of early 2020, explicit standards for testing medical marijuana products are still under development.

Montana

The state is revising its standards to give the state health agency more direct control over medical cannabis tests that are currently being carried out by sanctioned laboratories under very detailed government regulations. Medical marijuana in the state of Big Sky has been in an almost constant flow since its approval in 2004. Third-party lab tests are currently targeting the usual suspects, and some of them under fairly common quality controls, including "mammalian excretions". "

Nebraska

All forms of marijuana are illegal in Nebraska.

Nevada

The laboratories here test for about two dozen contaminants, but some say the list is not long enough and want the state to address the need to detect the presence of chromium, nickel, and other metals related to stainless steel associated with limit with vape carts. Third-party laboratories are currently testing under state law only for arsenic, lead, cadmium and mercury under the "Heavy Metals" label (see the full list here).

Meanwhile, Nevada regulators, in the casino's colors, began in 2019 to investigate laboratories for possible tampering with test results due to "criminal interference," as Governor Steve Sisolak said. The move is a response to complaints about excessive amounts of yeast and mold in MMJ flowers and pre-rolled products. This investigation started in September 2019; No results have been reported yet.

New Hampshire

Test regulations for the state's Therapeutic Cannabis Program and its Alternative Treatment Centers (i.e. pharmacies) have remained largely unchanged since the legalization of medical marijuana in 2014.

Interestingly, “metals” are not included in the list of contaminants for which each batch must be tested. New Hampshire is one of the few states that omit this. This could have an interesting impact on vape carts sales, as the state saw a rush of non-state customers when neighboring Massachusetts ruled out a four-month ban on such sales imposed on medical marijuana in September 2019, and even after the moratorium was changed in November ,

New Jersey

State testing requirements for medical cannabis were more constant than the law itself, which limited the availability of such products until strangulation by July 2019, when Governor Phil Murphy placed his pen under a law that eventually expanded and revised medical marijuana Garden State program. The larger program comes with a bureaucracy – the Cannabis Regulatory Commission – and probably more recent test registers than those set up by the State Department of Health in 2011.

New Mexico

Since the approval of medical cannabis in 2015, the state has had stable and comparatively comprehensive test regulations, including testing for heavy metals in vape carts. It wasn't until October 2019 that some modest updates were made.

What New Mexico tests for and why

New York

The state has an extensive list of contaminants for which its approved third party laboratories have to test – including some for which no other state such as Salmonella and E. coli tests. (For the full list, see page 69 of this document.)

New York officials point to the completeness of the test criteria for their medical marijuana program when they talk about the recent VAPI outbreak and point out that none of the reported diseases have been linked to state-approved providers.

North Carolina

Marijuana is not legal in North Carolina.

North Dakota

The state's first “compassion centers,” as they are called there, opened in March 2019, more than two years after voters approved medical cannabis in 2016, and six are slated to open by the end of 2019 the delay was responsible, and the first of two test laboratories in North Dakota only opened in April 2019.

Laboratory tests for the usual list of substances – pesticide residues, microbial contaminants, solvents, heavy metals, etc. The full list can be found here on page 28. Laboratories must contact the North Dakota Department of Health at any time – at their expense.

Ohio

The medical marijuana program in Ohio was approved by law in 2016, but only started in early 2019. It had problems with complaints about restricted access, high prices and poor accessibility (almost all pharmacies are located in the eastern half of the state). Some of these complaints focused on test regulations, which are said to be more restrictive than those of many other countries.

The program continued to suffer from a recall of three different medical marijuana products in November 2019 that made it to the shelves but failed laboratory tests for microbial contaminants. And they have tried to let patients know that the vape products they have approved for sale are safe given the fear of street carts.

Here's what Ohio Laboratories test for: Here are the rules by which they can work.

Oklahoma

Since medical legalization came into force in June 2018, more than 200,000 patients, or nearly 5 percent of the state's population, have signed up for the program. That's more than double what government officials expected when they founded the Oklahoma Medical Marijuana Authority (OMMA).

Result: The initial lack of state-prescribed test regulations left the quality control for medical marijuana products to private test laboratories, which each work according to their own standards. However, a change in law in August 2019 required OMMA to approve all new test laboratories. So far, however, there are no such laboratories – only those that have been doing business all the time. This is unlikely to change anytime soon, as the state lab application process opened on November 1, 2019.

And this has led to concerns that mold, metals, pesticides, or other contaminants could be found in medical marijuana products for sale across Oklahoma that may not have been subjected to as rigorous testing as other labs could. Here are the rules for testing medical marijuana in Oklahoma.

Oregon

Oregon’s medical marijuana program is "confusing, messy, underfunded, and poorly regulated" for many who have worked in it. This is a common by-product of states with separate bureaucracies for medical cannabis and recreational cannabis that should never coexist. As recreational cannabis has become more popular and cheaper than its medical equivalent, the medical marijuana support infrastructure has become starved and diminished in terms of customers and cash.

This could have played a role in the summer of 2019 when a man died from a tainted vapor product that was reportedly sold by an Oregon pharmacy. This happened at a time when the Oregon Cannabis Commission, an advisory council, recommended that the OMMP need better cannabis testing to ensure that tainted medical marijuana products did not hit the market. This, in turn, could have led Governor Kate Brown to try to sell all nicotine and THC-based vaping products in October 2019, which continues to starve the medical market, although the courts have blocked that move since then.

Learn how the marijuana lab tests in Oregon (for both medical and recreational products) work and what they're tested for – a list that excludes heavy metals and microbiological contaminants, among others.

Oregon Cannabis Tests: An Overview

Pennsylvania

Medical cannabis, which has been legal in Pennsylvania since April 2016, is "a victim of its own success," according to a media report. The state has around 60 pharmacies and 200,000 registered patients. Demand has exceeded supply so much that many patients have been unable to get what they need. This is because the number of producers has not increased proportionally due to licensing problems and other growing pains.

What does this say about the state of laboratory tests in Pennsylvania? Wild fluctuations in moisture across the state make the presence of mold a constant challenge, some growers say, but according to the law, there are no statistics on how much potential product has been picked out – or what may have slipped.

Klicken Sie hier, um zu lesen, wie Pennsylvania seine Tests durchführt und worauf es testet.

Medizinisches Marihuana aus Pennsylvania: Testen auf einen Blick

Rhode Island

Rhode Island bleibt einer der wenigen Staaten, in denen kein medizinisches Marihuana getestet werden muss.

Das 2006 eingerichtete medizinische Cannabis-Programm des Staates floriert dank einer Reihe von Faktoren: Mangel an legalem Freizeit-Cannabis; ein breites Spektrum an Qualifikationsbedingungen, die es leicht machen, MMJ-Patient zu werden; eine stetige Parade von Käufern außerhalb des Staates aus restriktiveren Staaten; und Berichten zufolge die Bereitschaft vieler Ärzte, mit wenigen Fragen zu verschreiben. Die Nachfrage ist so robust, dass sie das Angebot übertrifft, was zu langen Wartezeiten in den wenigen zugelassenen Apotheken des Staates und viel Druck führt, mehr zu öffnen.

Leider ist die Qualitätssicherung etwas, worauf Patienten sich voll und ganz verlassen müssen.

Dies führte zu Beschwerden und sogar Protesten von Patienten, die befürchten, dass die Produkte, von denen sie abhängen, sie krank machen könnten. Ein solcher Patient, der bei einer Protestkundgebung im Juni 2019 seine medizinische Karte für Rhode Island gegen eine Karte für Massachusetts abwarf, sagte: „Das Cannabis wird nicht getestet, nicht vollständig auf Schwermetalle, Pestizide, Schimmel und dergleichen getestet, und ich bin Krebspatient , Ich könnte sterben." Staatsbeamte sagen, dass sie daran arbeiten.

South Carolina

Cannabis ist in South Carolina nach wie vor illegal, und die staatlichen Behörden haben sogar Geschäfte überfallen, in denen CBD verkauft wird.

South Dakota

Alle Formen von Cannabis sind in South Dakota illegal. Wählerinitiativen zur Einrichtung eines medizinischen Cannabis-Programms in South Dakota sind seit 2006 wiederholt gescheitert, aber die Unterstützer werden es 2020 erneut versuchen.

Tennessee

Alle Formen von Marihuana sind in Tennessee illegal.

Texas

Texas erlaubt Patienten den Zugang zu nur CBD-Öl mit niedrigem THC-Gehalt und hat keine Vorschriften bezüglich der Prüfung dieser Produkte.

Der Lone Star State ist ein Neuling im Bereich medizinisches Cannabis, mit den üblichen Anfällen und Anfängen in anderen Staaten, die sich nicht wirklich damit befassen wollen. Nach der erstmaligen Genehmigung eines MMJ-Programms für Menschen mit schwer zu behandelnder Epilepsie im Jahr 2015 wurde das Compassionate Use Program im Juni 2019 auf diejenigen ausgedehnt, die an einem moderat breiteren Spektrum von Anfallsleiden leiden. Der Staat stellte das Antragsverfahren für Apotheken jedoch im Oktober 2019 kurz nach seiner Eröffnung ohne jede Erklärung ein. Andere verwirrende Entwicklungen haben die Labortestbranche in Texas vorerst ebenfalls behindert. Selbst Strafverfolgungslabors wissen nicht, wie sie die verschiedenen Formen von Cannabis testen sollen.

Utah

Ein medizinisches Cannabis-Programm, einschließlich obligatorischer Produkttests, wurde 2018 von den Wählern genehmigt. Der Staat hat angekündigt, 10 Dispenserlizenzen an 10 Unternehmen auszustellen und spätestens am 1. März 2020 mit der Ausstellung von Patientenregistrierungskarten zu beginnen Utahs Labortestsystem ist möglicherweise eines der härtesten und klarsten in der Nation. Diese Regeln sind in diesem staatlichen Bulletin vom Juli 2019 dargelegt.

Excerpt from Utah’s pesticide regulation rule

Vermont

Vermont has no mandatory testing requirements for legal medical marijuana products sold within the state. Some dispensaries use their own in-house labs to test for potency and purity, but there’s no third-party assurance at this time. In 2016 the state legislature commissioned this report that spelled out in great detail how testing should be done, but it’s unclear why the information wasn’t acted upon.

Virginia

Medical cannabis is coming to Virginia after the passage of bills in the state legislature in 2018 and 2019. There’s no specific date on when MMJ product will be sold, but the process of setting up a regulated supply chain, including establishing testing-lab regulations and certifications, is underway.

Washington

More than five years after the first adult-use cannabis stores opened in Washington, the state’s lab testing system remains broken. As Leafly’s Ben Adlin reported in 2019, the head of the state Liquor and Cannabis Board admitted, “We don’t have the expertise” to oversee a reasonable testing system—despite the fact that other legal states, apparently, do have that capacity.

Quoting from Adlin’s report:

Pesticides are perhaps the most obvious example. While state regulations prohibit the use of certain pesticides on cannabis, the LCB has never actually required that adult-use products be tested for those pesticides. Aside from the occasional surprise inspection, it’s entirely an honor system.

If that’s not a head-scratcher, consider heavy metals. The state spells out specific limits on individual metals, including arsenic, cadmium, lead, and mercury. Regulations say that products that exceed those limits “fail quality assurance testing.” But as with pesticides, the LCB doesn’t require that testing be done, except in the case of medical-only products.

“The testing program in Washington is weak,” said Aaron Riley, president of CannaSafe, a major California-based cannabis testing laboratory. “There’s really not safety requirements.”

Currently the state requires adult-use cannabis be tested for:

  • Potency, including THC and CBD levels
  • Microbial contamination, such as from mold, fungus, or bacteria
  • Mycotoxins, or toxic chemicals produced by microorganisms
  • Moisture, which can increase the risk of microorganism contamination

Why no provision for pesticides or heavy metals, even after five years of legal sales? Largely because of pushback by growers, who said the cost of product testing would be too big a burden, hurting small farms and driving up costs for consumers.

West Virginia

While the state’s medical cannabis program officially took legal effect in July 2019, state officials say that actual dispensary sales and product testing are two to three years away.

Wisconsin

Marijuana remains illegal in all forms in Wisconsin. Backers of a medical-cannabis program here haven’t been able to overcome fears in the Republican-dominated legislature that legalizing medical use will necessarily lead to legalized recreational cannabis, but they’ll try again in 2020.

Wyoming

Marijuana remains illegal in all forms in Wyoming.

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