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Understanding THC and CBD cannabinoids in hashish vegetation

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As a medical cannabis patient, the amount of new information can feel overwhelming. There are many new terms and concepts and it is important to understand them. A solid basic knowledge enables better communication with doctors, pharmacists and other naturopaths. Let's take a look at some of the key elements.

What are THC and CBD?

THC (Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol) and CBD (cannabidiol) are produced by the cannabis plant. They are the main active ingredients in cannabis and belong to a group of molecules called cannabinoids1. Interestingly, they are not produced naturally by cannabis, but by a process known as decarboxylation 2.

In nature, THC and CBD exist as acidic versions of themselves called THCA and CBDA, and when cannabis is heated by smoking, vaping, cooking, or baking, the "acidic" part of THCA and CBDA becomes -Molecule (known as carboxyl) is removed and forms THC or CBD 2.

It is important to note that our ingestible oils and steam concentrates are pre-activated, which means that they do not need to be activated by heating before use.

How do cannabinoids interact with the body?

Over 100 different types of cannabinoids are produced by cannabis plant 1, with THC and CBD being the most common. Although THC and CBD are both cannabinoids, they work very differently when consumed in the body.

THC is the main cannabinoid, which is responsible for the feeling of poisoning and is generally referred to as "high". 3. THC interacts with the body's endocannabinoid system (ECS) by activating the cannabinoid receptors CB1 and CB2. The ECS is an ancient signaling system and helps regulate cognitive and physiological processes, memory, fertility, mood and appetite, among other things. 4. THC activates these receptors by binding them to them like a lock and key, when this occurs, changes in the body occur.

THC activates cannabinoid receptors in the body via a lock and key mechanism.

CBD is a non-intoxicating cannabinoid 1,3, although one study found that high-dose (400 mg) vaporizing CBD is slightly intoxicating. Similar to THC, CBD interacts with the ECS, but in a different way. As a result, CBD is believed to help fight some of the unwanted side effects of THC such as anxiety 3,6,7. In addition to the ECS, CBD also exerts its effects in the body by interacting with other signaling pathways 8.

Does the ratio of THC to CBD matter?

Different cannabis products have different ratios of THC to CBD. Some are THC-dominant, others CBD-dominant and still others are more balanced in their ratio. But what exactly does that mean?

Understanding the differences between these product types is important because the ratio of THC to CBD affects the effectiveness and risk of undesirable side effects with each product.

product type Relationship Ratio of THC to CBD
THC dominant
High in THC / Low in CBD
THC >>> CBD

Dried Flower: Henik, Holden, Williston, Walker, Großbär, Mohawk, Bienville, Sachigo, Grower & # 39; s Blend

Oil with dosing syringe : 20: 1

Oral Spray: 20: 1

Capsule: 6: 0 and 10: 0

Vapes : Aspen and Walker

Balanced
Comparable amounts of THC and CBD
THC ~ CBD

Dried Flower : Churchill

Oil with dosing syringe: 10:13

Oral Spray: 10:13

Capsule: 6: 8 and 10:13

Vapes: Churchill

CBD dominant
High in CBD / Low in THC
THC <<< CBD

Dried Flower: Treasure Island

Oil with dosing syringe: 1:25

Oral Spray : 1:25

capsule : 1:15 and 1:25

DID YOU KNOW? CBD-dominant products still contain small amounts of THC. This means that people who work in job-safe positions may still test positive for THC during random drug screening and should speak to their employer before using cannabis 9.

How can you prevent unwanted side effects?

Generally, undesirable side effects of cannabis (i.e. dizziness, increased heart rate and fatigue) are due to the amount of THC 3.10 consumed. Interestingly, studies are emerging showing that CBD can reduce unwanted side effects from THC3. While more research is needed to understand this interaction, Canada's lower risk guidelines for cannabis use recommend using products that contain lower levels of THC or a higher ratio of CBD to THC (i.e. balanced or CBD dominant Products) 11.

Choosing the right ratio can help predict therapeutic effects.

Both THC and CBD contribute to the therapeutic effects of cannabis. The type and ratio of cannabinoids contained in a product can help determine the benefits. Research shows that THC-dominant, CBD-dominant and THC: CBD-balanced products can be helpful in the treatment of certain diseases and / or symptoms, including the following:

Therapeutic use *

CBD dominant

THC dominant Balanced

Reference

Suppression of nausea and vomiting due to chemotherapy

X

12,13,14

Improvement of symptoms due to multiple sclerosis and spinal cord injury

X

15-20

Epilepsy

X

21-24

Pain such as chronic non-cancer-related or neuropathic pain

X

X

X

25-30

Glaucoma

X

31-32

sleep disorders

X

X

33-35

Stress

X

36-38

* This table was provided for informational purposes only and must not be used for product selection.

If you are considering using cannabis for medical purposes, it is important to speak to your doctor first so that a proper assessment and diagnosis can be made. It is also important to tell your doctor what types of medication you are taking, as THC and CBD can interact with certain medications.

References

  1. Health Canada (2019) About Cannabis. https://www.canada.ca/en/health-canada/services/drugs-medication/cannabis/about.html
  2. Solymosi, K. & Koefalvi, A. (2017). Cannabis: a treasury or a pandora box? Mini Reviews in Medicinal Chemistry, 17 (13), 1223-1291. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27719666
  3. Health Canada (2019) What you need to know if you want to consume cannabis. Electronic document, https://www.canada.ca/en/health-canada/services/drugs-medication/cannabis/resources/what-you-need-to-know-if-you-choose-to-consume-cannabis .html, accessed February 2020.
  4. Health Canada (2018) Information for healthcare professionals. https://www.canada.ca/content/dam/hc-sc/documents/services/drugs-medication/cannabis/information-medical-practitioners/information-health-care-professionals-cannabis-cannabinoids-eng.pdf
  5. Solowij, N., Broyd, S., Greenwood, L.M., van Hell, H., Martelozzo, D., Rueb, K., … & Murray, R. (2019). A randomized controlled trial with vaporized Δ 9-tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol alone and in combination in frequent and rare cannabis users: acute poisoning effects. European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience, 269 (1), 17-35.https: //www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30661105
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